Biosphere Reserves (BRs) of India

Biosphere Reserves (BRs) are representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over a large area of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems. The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India. Ten of the eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. There are over 500 biosphere reserves in over 100 countries around the world.
The Ministry of Environment and Forest provides financial assistance to State governments for the conservation of landscape, diversity and cultural heritage. Ministry also provides support for research, monitoring, education and information exchange of the respective biosphere reserve.

Biosphere reserves of India
# Biosphere Reserve Established State Key Fauna Key Flora
1 Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (First Biosphere Reserve in India) 1986 Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur Vanda, Liparis, Medusa’s head orchid, Spiranthes, Chi-tou wind orchid
2 Nanda Devi National Park & Biosphere Reserve 1988 Uttarakhand Himalyan Tahr, Koklas pheaant, Brown Bear Silver weed, Fairy Primrose, Salep orchid
3 Gulf of Mannar 1989 Tamil Nadu Dugong Dugong (Sea Cow), Sea Fan Morning glory, Halophila grass
4 Nokrek 1988 Meghalaya Pig tailed macaque, Giant Flying squirrel, Stump tailed macaque Grand rasamala, Hairy Sterculia, Wild lemon, Chempaka, White meranti
5 Sundarbans (largest contiguous mangrove area in the world and only mangrove area having Tigers) 1989 West Bengal Bengal Tiger, Salvator lizard, Bengal monitor lizard Sundari, Nypa, Passur, Tagal mangrove, Sandy mangrove, crabapple mangrove
6 Manas 1989 Assam Pygmy hog, Hispid hare, Golden langur Catechu tree, Sissoo, white siris
7 Simlipal 1994 Odisha Red breasted Falconet, Ruddy mangoose Colix grass, Sal tree, Myrobalan, Sisso, Champak
8 Dihang-Dibang 1998 Arunachal Pradesh Red panda, green pit viper, Takin Tree fern, Begonia
9 Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve 1999 Madhya Pradesh Barasinga, Wild Buffalo, Red jungle fowl Sal tree, Selaginella fern, Palimorpha bamboo
10 Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve 2005 Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh Fourhorn Antelope, Saras crane, Sacred grove bush Frog, Whitebacked Vulture, Indian wild dog
11 Great Rann of Kutch 2008 Gujarat Indian Wild Ass
12 Cold Desert 2009 Himachal Pradesh Snow Leopard
13 Khangchendzonga 2010 Sikkim Snow Leopard, Red Panda
14 Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve 2001 Kerala, Tamil Nadu Lion tailed macaque, slender loris, Great pied hornbill Rudraksha tree, Gaub tree, Wild dhaman, black plums
15 Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve 1989 Andaman and Nicobar Islands Serpent Eagle, Crab eating Macaque, saltwater Crocodile Screw pine, Nipa Palm, Ceylon iron wood
16 Dibru-Saikhowa 1997 Assam Golden Langur, Hollock gibbon Rauvolfia, Benteak, Livistona orchid
17 Seshachalam Hills 2010 Andhra Pradesh Slender Loris Red Sanders
18 Panna 2011 Madhya Pradesh tiger, chital, chinkara, sambhar and sloth bear

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