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Syllabus: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms,
Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Salient aspects of Art Forms (Dance, Music, Paintings, Theater,
Puppetry, Cinemas etc.)

Importance of studying culture: Contemporary relevance: Infrastructure, Polity, Agriculture, society etc. (Ex: Relevance of Indus valley town planning in smart city mission).

  • Dance
  • Music
  • Paintings
  • Theatre
  • PUPPETRY
  • LITERATURE
  • ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE
    • Temple Architecture
    • Architecture in Medival India and Islamic Architecture
  • Philosophy
  • Bhakti & Sufi Movements
    • South India
    • North India
    • Maharashtra
    • Bengal
    • Sufi Movement
  • Science & Technology
    • Mathematics
    • Medicine
    • Chemistry
    • Astronomy

Prehistoric Period

Prehistoric period- time period, features, tools, habitation
and occupation, important sites etc.

 Paleolithic- lower, middle and upper Paleolithic period
 Mesolithic period
 Neolithic period
 Chalcolithic period

Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)
 Time period
 Important sites
 Phases of IVC- Early, mature and late
 Town planning
 Script and language
 Art and crafts, seals, pottery etc
 Decline
Lifestyle of people during IVC
 Social and political
 Agriculture
 Trade and commerce
 Religions
 Cultural activities
 Miscellaneous

Vedic Age

Vedic and later Vedic age
 Advent of Aryans in India
 Economic and social life of Aryans
 Literature during Vedic time- Vedas, Upanishads,
Puranas and six systems of philosophy etc.
 Important Gods worshipped and their significance to
Vedic people

Early Vedic and later Vedic Age- quick comparison
 Society- family, marriage, status of women, social
delusion etc.
 Economic conditions- agriculture, trade and
commerce etc.
 Political conditions
 Culture and religion
 miscellaneous

Pre Mauryan Age

Mahajanapadas
Mahajanapadas and their capital
 Political system
 Rise and growth of Magadha empire
 Foreign invasion and their impact
 Janapadas
 Miscellaneous
Buddhism
 Gautam Buddha and Buddhism
 Buddhist literature
 Councils
 Teachings of Buddha
 Hinayana and Mahayana
 Bodhisattvas
 Causes of decline
 Buddhist architecture
 Miscellaneous
Jainism
 Jain Tirthankaras
 Mahavira and Jainism
 Literature
 Spread of Jainism
 Councils
 Teachings
 Split in Jainism- Swetambaras and digambaras
 Doctrine of Jainism
 Decline
 Jain architecture
 Miscellaneous

Mauryan Age

Mauryan Empire
 Rise and expansion
 Important rulers
 Kautilya and arthashastra
 Decline of empire
Ashoka
 Rise to power
 Ashoka and Buddhism
 Ashoka’s Dhamma
 Ashoka inscriptions- pillar edicts, major rock edicts
and minor rock edicts

Miscellaneous
 Mauryan administration
 Social life
 Economic conditions
 Art and architecture
 Religious life
 Miscellaneous

Post Mauryan Age

Native successor
 Sunga dynasty
 Kanva dynasty
 Satavahanas
 Chedi dynasty of Kalinga
Foreign successors of Mauryas
 Indo Greeks
 Sakas
 Parthians
 Kushans- kanishka (main ruler)
Impact of Foreign successors
 Military
 Trade and agriculture
 Polity
 Society
 Religious development
 Gandhara and Mathura school of art
Miscellaneous

Gupta Period

Gupta Period
 Rise and expansion
 Important rulers and titles adopted by Gupta kings
 Foreign visitors
 Urban centers in Gupta period
 Fall of the empire
Life under Gupta’s
 System of administration
 Trade and agriculture
 List of taxes levied
 Social life
 Religion
 Art and architecture
 Literature
 Science and technology
 Miscellaneous

Sangam Age

Sangam Age
 Time period and three sangams
 Sangam literature
 Cheras
 Cholas: mainly found in local government
 Pandyas
Life under Sangam Age
 Polity and administration
 Society
 Position of women
 Religion
 Economy
 End of sangam age
Miscellaneous

Post Guptas

Harshavardhana Era
 Harsha Kingdom
 Hiuen Tsang account
 Administration
 Buddhism and Nalanda
 Economy
 Society
 Miscellaneous
Other kingdoms and their contributions
 Chalukyas
 Pallavas
 Vakataka empire
 Other regional kingdoms

Early Medieval Period

Foreign Travellers in Medieval India

Northern India (8th to 10th century)
 Palas
Pratiharas
Rashtrakutas
 Political administration under there kingdoms
Age of conflicts (1000-1200 AD)
 The Rajput states
 The ghaznavids
 Turkish conquest of North India
 Battle of Tarain
 Rise of Turkish and defeat of the Rajput’s
Economy and social life (800 AD-1200 AD)
 Trade and commerce
 Society- condition of women, caste system, pattern of
living etc.
 Education, science and learning
 Art and architecture
 Miscellaneous

Delhi Sultanate

Major Dynasties and their rulers
 Slave dynasty
 Khilji dynasty
 Tughlaq dynasty
 Sayyid dynasty
 Lodhi dynasty
Life under Delhi Sultanate
 Internal reform and experiment
 Market control and agrarian policy of Alauddin Khilji
 Mohammed Bin Tughlaq experiment
 Central and local administration
 Trade and commerce
 Peasants and rural economy
 Nobles in courts
 Taxes levied
 Social manner and custom
 Religious freedom
 Literature
 Architecture
 Relationship with regional kingdoms
 Decline of Delhi sultanate
 Miscellaneous

Vijaynagar and other Kingdoms

Vijaynagar Empire (1336-1672 AD)
 Sources of information
 Dynasties- sangama, saluva, tuluva and aravidu
 Krishna Deva Raya- an important ruler
 Administration
 Army and military organisation
 Social life
 Economic life
 Cultural contributions
 Miscellaneous
Other regional kingdoms
 Bahamani kingdom
 Conflict between vijaynagar and the Bahamani
kingdom
 Other regional states- Bengal, Jaunpur, Kashmir,
Gujarat, Malwa, Khandesh, Rajasthan etc.
 Social and cultural conditions’
 Economic conditions
 Contribution- architecture, literature etc.
 Miscellaneous

Religious development in Medieval India

Sufism
 Growth of Sufism in Islamic world
 Chisti silsilah
 Suhrawardi silsilah
 Naqshbandi Silsilah
 Qadri silsilah
 Sufi words and their meanings (important)
 Achievements of Sufi saints (focus on Sufi saints
related to silsilah, their contributions and places
associated)

Bhaktism
 Emergence of bhakti movement
 Philosophy of the movement
 Nirguna and saguna Brahman and their saints
 Bhakti saints of North India
 Women devotees of Bhakti Movements
 Social impact
 Focus on Important saints and their contribution
 Nathpanthis, siddhis and yogis
Sikhism
 Emergence
 Main features
 Baba Guru Nanak
 Guru Gobind Singh
 Other Sikh Gurus and their contributions
 Social impact
 Important places associated with Sikhism
 Religious building architecture
 Miscellaneous

Mughals
• Establishment of Mughal Empire
 Advance of Babur towards India
 Battle of Panipat
 Struggle between Babur and Rana Sanga
 Babur contribution and significance
 Humanyun and the Afghans
 Early activities of Humayun
 Establishment of Sur Empire
 Contribution of sher shah
 Re-establishment of Mughal empire
Akbar
 Early life
 Early expansion of the empire- Malwa, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Eastern India
 Relations with the Rajput’s
 Relations with the Ulama and social reforms
 Akbar religious policies and toleration
 Akbar and the Uzbeks
 Nobles in the court of Akbar
 Navaratna of Akbar
Jahangir and Shah Jahan
 Jahangir accession- early difficulties
 Jahangir as a ruler
 Nur Jahana Junta
 Expansion of empire
 Shah Jahan as a ruler
 Shah Jahan contribution in architecture
 Miscellaneous
Aurangzeb
 War of succession
 Religious policy
 Territorial consolidation and expansion of empire
 Popular revolts
 Relations with Rajput’s
 Aurangzeb and the Deccan states
 Miscellaneous
Mughals
 Structure of government
 Land revenue system
 Army and military organization
 Economic conditions
 Society- position of women, slaves, caste system, ruling classes (nobility),etc.
 Rural society and town life
 Foreign policy of Mughals
 Mansab and Jagir system
 Growth of trade
 The Hindu society
 Miscellaneous
 Decline of Mughals (causes)
Mughals Contribution
 Language and literature ,Art and architecture,Paintings,Music etc.

Marathas, later Mughals and regional states

Marathas
 Rise of Marathas under Shivaji
 Shivaji’s administration
 Expansion of Marathas
 Treaty of Purbander
 Peshwas under Maratha empire
 Mughals and Marathas conflicts
 Contribution in history of India
 Decline of Marathas
Other Regional States (during 17th century)
 Punjab
 Bengal and Awadh
 Rajput’s
 Mysore state
 Nizam of Hyderabad
 History of Jats
 Other states
Later Mughals (1707-1757)
 Decline of Mughal Empire
 Later Mughal kings
 Role of Sayyid brothers
 Invasion of Nadir Shah and its impact
 miscellaneous

British Conquest of India

Advent of Europeans in India
 Portuguese
 Dutch
 English
 French
 Danes
 English succeeded against other European powers.
British Conquest of India
 British conquest of Bengal
 Mysore conquest
 Anglo Maratha Struggle
 Conquest of Sind and Punjab
 Annexation of Awadh
 British India and Neighboring Countries
 Why British Succeeded?

Early structure of British Raj (till 1857)

Government Administration
 Administration : central, provincial and local
 Changes in Army
 Administrative policies
 Judiciary
 Social and cultural policy
Various settlement policies, its significance and impact
 Subsidiary alliance
 Permanent settlement
 Ryotwari system
 Mahalwari system etc
Constitutional development (1773-1857)
 Regulating act of 1773
 Pitt’s India Act of 1784
 Charter act of 1793
 Charter act of 1813
 Charter act of 1833
 Charter act of 1853

Indian response to British Rule

Politico- religious movements
 Fakir uprising
 Sanyasi uprising
 Pagal panthis
 Wahabi movement
 Faraizi revolt
 Kuka revolt
 Moplah rebellion
Civil and Tribal Uprisings
 Bengal- Chuar, Ho Rising, Kol Mutiny, Kandh,
sawnal, Ahom revolt, khasi, munda etc.
 North east frontier- khasisi, singphos, kukis, Tripura
revolt, naga movement etc.
 Western India- Bhil Uprising, cutch rebellion, koli
rising, ramose, kohlapur revolt etc.
 South India- Vozoanagaram revolt, poligars revolt,
rampa revolt etc. (focus on period, region, causes and
consequences)
Peasants movements
 In Bengal province
 In Bombay province
 In Madras province
 Miscellaneous

The Revolt of 1857

1857 Revolt
 Major causes
 Beginning and spread of the revolt
 Suppression of the revolt
 Causes of failure
 Hindu Muslim unity factor
 Leaders of the revolt
 Changes after 1857 revolt
 Miscellaneous

Social and religious reform movements
Introduction
 Background and causes of the reform movements
 Characteristics
 Contribution of social reform movements
 Limitations
Reform movements
 Brahmo samaj
 Young Bengal movement
 Arya samaj
 Ramkrishna mission
 Theosophical society
 Prarthana samaj
 Satyashodhak samaj
 Other social reformers
Muslim reform movements
 Wahali movement
 Faraizi movement
 Ahmadiya movement
 Aligarh movement
 Deoband movement
 Other movements
Miscellaneous movements
 Sikh reform movement
 Parsi reform movement
 Self-respect movement
 Vaikom satyagraha
 Deva samaj
 Dharma sabha
 Radhaswami movement
 Servants of India society
 Other movement (focus on people associated, nature and
objectives, impact on society etc.)

1858-1905 time period

1858-1885
 Growth of modern nationalism
 Political, administrative and economic unification
 Princely states position
 Political associations in Bengal, Bombay and Madras
 GoI Act 1861 and 1892
 Pre congress campaign like Arms Act (1878), Delhi
Darbar, vernacular press act, Ilbert bill etc.
 Miscellaneous
Indian National Congress
 Aims and objectives
 Method of political work of moderates
 moderates vs extremists
 Miscellaneous

National Movement (1905-1918)

Swadeshi and Boycott movement
 Causes
 Spread
 Personalities associates
 Nature
 Course of the movement
 Government response
 Evaluation
After Swadeshi Movement
 Surat split
 Revolutionary activities phase I
 Morley Minto Reforms 1909
 First world war and its impact
 Home rule league movement- tilak and annie besant
 Lucknow session of INC
 Montagu statement
 Miscellaneous

National Movement (1919-1930)
Emergence of Gandhi
 Early career
 Gandhiji in South Africa
 Gandhis technique of Satyagraha
 Gandhi in India – champaran satyagraha, Ahmedabad mill
strike, kheda satyagraha.
Khilafat and non-coperation movement
 Background causes
 The khilafat issue
 Progress of the movement
 Spread of the movement
 Government response
 Chauri chaura incident and withdrew of movement
 Important leaders evaluation- positive and negatives
After Non Cooperation movement
 Swarajists and no changers
 Simon commission
 Nehru report
 Jinnah’s 14 demands
 Calcutta session of INC 1928
 Delhi Manifesto
 Purna Swaraj and Lahore session
 Miscellaneous
Emergence of New Forces during 1920s
 Spread of Marxism and socialist ideas
 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC)
 Caste movements
 Revolutionary activities-major influences, major activities,
revolutionaries, compare with revolutionary activities
phase I etc.
 Hindustan republican association (HRA) and Bhagat Singh
 Yugantar and Anushilan groups
 Growth of Communalism in India
 Evolution of the two nation theory
 Miscellaneous

National Movement (1930-1939)

Civil Disobedience movement
 Gandhis eleven demands’
 Why salt was chosen as the canoral formula?
 Sandi ,arch
 Spread of the movement
 Mass participation
 Government response
 2
nd round table conference
 Important leaders
 Evaluation
After Civil Disobedience Movement
 Round table conference- 1

st, 2nd and 3rd

 Gandhi Irwin pact
 Karachi congress session 1931
 Communal award and Poorna Pact
 Gandhi’s harijan campaign
 First stage debate- future strategy by INC (1934-35)
 Government of India Act 1935
 The Second Stage Debate (1937)
 Congress rule in provinces

National Movement (1939-1947)

Towards freedom
 Second world war
 August offer
 Individual satyagrahas
 Cripps mission
 quit India movement
 Rajagopalachari formula
 Desai liyaquat pact, Wavell plan
 Indian National ARMY
 INA Trials
 Three upsurges (1945-46)
 Election results (1946)
 Cabinet mission
 Communal riots
 Interim government
 Attlee’s statement
 Indian Independence Act, 1947
 Partition
 Plan Balkan
 Miscellaneous

British Impact on India

Economic Impact
 Deindustrialization
 Commercialization of agriculture
 Capitalism
 Ruralisation
 Famines during British Raj
 Rise of Indian Bourgeoisie
 Economic Drain
 Economic impact on states
 Miscellaneous
Development under British Rule
 Development of Indian press
 Development of education
 civil services
 police
 judiciary
 railways
 communication
 service and technology
 miscellaneous
Social and cultural impact
 Impact on position of women in society
 Children’s
 Working class mainly labours
 Social reforms by Britishers

Governor generals
 Warren hastings (1773-85)
 Lord Cornwallis (1786-93)
 John Shore (1793-98)
 Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
 George Barlow (1805-07)
 Lord Minto I (1807-13)
 Lord Hatings (1813-23)
 Lord Amherst (1823-28)
 Lord William Bentick (1828-35)
 Lord Metcalle (1835-36)
 Lord Auckland (1836-42)
 Lord Ellenborough (1842-44)
 Lord Hardinge (1844-48)
 Lord Dalhousie (1848-56)
Viceroys
 Lord Canning (1858-62)
 Lord Elgin I (1862-63)
 John Lawrence (1864-69)
 Lord Mayo (1869-72)
 Lord Nothbrook (1872-76)
 Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
 Lord Ripon (1880-84)
 Lord Dufferin (1884-88)
 Lord Lansdowne (1888-94)
 Lord Elgin II- (1894-99)
 Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
 Lord Minto II (1905-10)
 Lord Hardinge II (1910-16)
 Lord Chelmsford (1916-21)
 Lord Reading (1921-26)
 Lord Irusin (1926-31)
 Lord Willingdon (1931-36)
 Lord Linlithgow (1936-44)
 Lord Wavell (1944-47)
 Lord Mountbatten (1947-48)

Modern India – Misscellaneous

Personalities associated with specific movements
 1857 revolt
 Swadeshi movement
 Home rule league
 Non-cooperation movement
 Civil disobedience movement
 Quit India Movement
Indian National Congress Session
Newspaper and Journals

Indian Architecture, sculpture and pottery
Indian architecture

 Harappan art
 Mauryan art
 Gupta age art
 South Indian Art
 Indo Islamic Architecture- sultanate and Mughals
 Modern Architecture
 Hindu Architectural styles i.e. temple architecture
 Buddhist architecture
 Jain architecture
 Other regional architectural styles and monuments
 Promotion and conservation of architecture
Sculpture and Pottery
 Sculpture of harappan civilization- seals, bronze
figure, terracotta, pottery etc.
 Post Mauryan sculpture- gandhara, Mathura and
amaravati school
 Gupta sculpture- sarnath school
 Chola sculpture- Nataraja
 Miscellaneous

Paintings and Handicrafts
Indian Paintings
 Prehistoric Paintings i.e. Stone age
 Mural Paintings in India
 Miniature Paintings in India
 Painting in the Deccan
 Rajput school of Painting
 Regional Paintings
 Mughal Paintings
 Modern paintings
 Famous Personalities
Handicrafts
 Handicrafts on cloth
 Ivory Crafting
 Clay & Pottery Work
 Bronze Crafts
 Toys Crafts
 Miscellaneous
(Focus in Famous Crafts only)

Performing Arts – Dance and Music
Indian Music
 History of Indian Music
 Famous personalities-Ancient, Medieval, Modern time
 Forms of Indian Music
 Institutions related to Music
 Music Instruments
 Modern Development in Music
Indian Dance Forms
 Background
 Concept of Ashta Nayika
 Eight Classical Dance forms in India
 Folk Dances
 Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous
 Indian theatare- Classical Sanskrit Theatre and
Regional Theatre
 Puppetry- Types of Puppetry
 Indian Circus

Religion, Fairs and Festivals
Religion

 Hinduism
 Islam
 Christianity
 Sikhism
 Zoroastrianism
 Judaism
Fairs and Festivals of India
 Religious Festivals
 Secular Festivals
 Animals Festivals
 Festivals of North East India
 Miscellaneous
(Focus in Fairs and Festivals in news)

Language, literature & Philosophy
Language in India
 Classification of Indian Language
 Official Language of India
 Classical language
Indian Literature
 Literature in Ancient India
 Hindi and Sanskrit Literature
 Tamil Literature
 Sultanate and Mughal literature
 Literature during Colonial Rule
 Regional literature
Schools of Philosophy

Miscellaneous –Art and Culture
Miscellaneous
 Indian Circus
 Indian Cinema
 Law and Culture
 Martial Arts
 Calendar
 UNESCO- list of world heritage sites in India
 Awards and Honor associated with culture
 Cultural Institutions in India
 Places of Cultural Interest
 Miscellaneous