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Biogeography of India

Soils of India
Soil
 Soil characteristics
 Soil formation- factors, stages and process
 Soil profiles and horizons
 Soil classification
 Soil erosion and other problems
 Soil conservation
Soils of India- characteristics and distribution
 Alluvial soil
 Black soil
 Red and yellow soil
 Laterite soil
 Arid soil
 Saline soil
 Plateau soil
 Forest soil
 Miscellaneous
Natural Vegetation
 Classification of forest- on basis of administration and
leaf cover (open, dense etc.)
 Tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen forest
 Tropical deciduous forest
 Thorn forest
 Montane forest
 Littoral and swamp forest
 Forestry
 Forest cover in India
 Grasslands
 Miscellaneous

Agriculture

Farming system
 Subsistence Farming
 Shifting Agriculture
 Plantation Agriculture
 Intensive farming
 Dry agriculture
 Mixed and multiple agriculture
 Terrace cultivation
 Miscellaneous
Irrigation types- merits and demerits
 Well and tube well irrigation
 Canal irrigation
 Tank irrigation
 Drip irrigation
 Sprinkler irrigation
 Other types of irrigation- furrow surge, ditch seepage etc.
 Irrigation related issues
Miscellaneous
 Land resource
 Agriculture regionalization
 Land use pattern
 Agriculture revolutions
 agricultural labours
 agricultural marketing
 agricultural census
 sustainable agriculture
-agriculture issues and challenges
 Agriculture intensity
 -miscellaneous
Agro climatic conditions of India
Agricultural allied activities
 sericulture
 poultry farming
 dairy
 apiculture
 miscellaneous

Crops and Cropping Pattern

Major crops in India (focus on conditions of growth, variety,
production pattern, international trade etc.
 trade etc.)
 – Food crops- rice, wheat, maize, pulses, millets etc.
 – Plantation crops- coffee, tea, rubber, coconut etc.
 -Cash crops- spices, tobacco, rubber, silk, jute, oilseeds,
sugarcane, cotton etc.
 – Horticulture- Vegetables and fruits
 – other crops
Miscellaneous
 – cropping seasons
 – cropping pattern in India
 – seeds and fertilizers
 – Dry zone farming
 – organic farming
 – crop combinations
 – contract farming
 – crop concentration

Mineral Resources

Minerals
 Mode of occurrence of minerals
 Agencies involved in the exploration of minerals
 International trade of minerals
 Conservation of mineral resources
 Significance
Types of minerals
 Metallic- ferrous and non-ferrous
 Non-metallic
 Precious- gold, silver, platinum etc.
 Energy resources- coal, petroleum, natural gas etc.
(Focus on distribution, production and international trade)
Mineral belts in India
 North Eastern Plateau Region
 South Western Plateau region
 North Western Region

Industries

Classification of Industries
 Based on size- cottage, small scale and large scale
 Raw material based- agro, material chemical and
forest based
 Product based- basic and consumer goods
 Ownership based- public sector, private sector and
joint sector
Important industries
 Iron and steel industry
 Textile Industry- cotton, silk, jute etc.
 Chemical industry
 Agro industry
 Manufacturing industry
 Footloose industries
 Other industries
(Focus on locational factor, distribution and production,
international trade, growth potential, recent trends and
challenges)
Miscellaneous
 Industrial regionalization
 New industrial policy
 Special economic zones
 Liberalization of industries
 Tourism etc.

Transport, communication and trade

Transport, communication and trade
 Road transport
 Railways
 Water transport, ports
 Oceanic routes
 Air transport
 International trade routes
 Communication
 Miscellaneous- economic infrastructure

Disaster Management

Natural hazards
 Natural disasters- earthquakes, volcanic eruption,
floods, droughts, epidemics, tsunamis etc.
 Man-made disasters- spills, fires, mining accidents,
groundwater contamination structure failures,
chemical explosions etc.
 Causes for occurrence of disaster
 Disaster management
 Challenges in disaster risk reduction
 Miscellaneous

Asia

Asia
 Physical features- mountains, rivers, lakes, plateaus,
deserts etc.
 Important countries and their capital
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Tribes
 Agriculture
 Important industries
 Miscellaneous

Africa

 Physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes, seas,
plateaus etc.
 Political geography
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Agriculture
 Important industries
 Miscellaneous

Europe

 Physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes, rift
valleys, plateaus etc.
 Political geography
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Agriculture
 Important industries
 Tribes
 Backwardness of African countries
 Miscellaneous

South America and North America

 Physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes,
deserts, plateau etc.
 Political geography
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Agriculture
 Important industries
 Tribes
 Miscellaneous

Australia and Antarctica

Australia continent
 Physical features like mountains, rivers, lakes,
deserts, plateau etc.
 Political geography
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Agriculture
 Important industries
 Tribes
 Miscellaneous
Antarctica
 Physical features
 Demographics
 Climatic conditions
 Research Centres
 Miscellaneous

Basics of Ecology and Environment

Ecology
 Difference between Ecology, Environment and
Ecosystem
 Types of Ecology
 Ecological Hierarchy
 Habitat
 Deep vs shallow Ecology
 Ecological Community
 Ecological Expansion
 Stratification
 Niche
 Ecotone
 Ecotype
 Biostasy
 Climax Community
 Ecological Succession –Define & types
 Range of Tolerance
Ecosystem
 Function and properties of Ecosystem
 Components of Ecosystem
 Flow of energy
 Trophic levels
 Food chain
 Food Web
 Ecological Productivity
 Ecological Pyrammid
 Biomagnification
 Ecological Adaptations
 Biological Control
 Symbiotic Relationship

Major Biomes

Biomes – Features, Location, vegetation
 Biome
 Grasslands
 Tundra
 Deserts- hot and cold
 Mountain Biome
 Miscellaneous

Environment Issues and Pollution

Environmental Issues
 E-Waste
 Disposal of untreated sewage
 Water resource degradation
 Arsenic and Fluoride problems in drinking water
 Mining
 Deforestation
 Open waste burning
 Plastics
 Oil spill
 Forest Fire
 Algal Bloom
 Coral Bleaching
 Tower Radiation
Environmental Pollution
 Air Pollution
 Water Pollution
 Soil Pollution
 Noise Pollution
 Radioactive Pollution
 Solid Waste
 Carbon Pollution
 Agents of Pollution
 Miscellaneous

Environmental conservation

Environmental conservation
 Provision in the Indian Constitution towards
environmental protection
 Prevention and Control of Pollution Act
 Water Prevention and control of Pollution Act, 1974
 Forest Conservation Act, 1980
 Wildlife Protection Act, 1972
 Environmental Protection Act, 1986
 Role of unemployment and private institutions in
Environmental protection
 Pollution control board
 National Green Tribunal
 National Board of Wildlife
 National Biodiversity
 Miscellaneouos
At International level
 Ramsar Convention
 Montreux Record
 Rio Convention
 Bonn convention
 Washington convention
 Montreal Protocol

Climate Change

Basics of Climate Change
 Global Warming
 Green House Effect
 Ozone Layer depletion
 Acid Rain
 Photo-chemical Smog
 Evidences for climate change
Impact of climate change
 Agriculture
 Monsoon
 Marine life
 Health
 Water resources
 Demography
 Threat to cities
Institution, Mitigation and Measures
 NAPCC
 IPCC Assessment Report
 Paris Agreement
 Kyoto protocol
 Kigali Agreement
 Marrakecls climate change conference
 Climate change Indicator-WMO report
 Carbon Tax
 Green Bond Concept
 Green Climate Fund
 Climate Change Performance Index
 UN Framework convention on climate change
 REDD and REDDt
 Inter Government Panel on climate change
 India’s effort etc..


 Vienna Convention
 Institutions – UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, UNCSD, UNDP
etc.
(Focus in important protocols and summits, International
organization, treaties and convention related to climate change
and biodiversity)

Environment Miscellaneous

Disaster Management
 Hazard, Disaster and emergency
 Atmospheric, Geological, Hydrological, Biological
hazards
 Man made disasters
 Disaster Risk Management – stages and role of
various institutes
Sustainable Development
 Principle of sustainability
 SDGs
 Sustainable Development-roel of Individual,
government and Private Institute/ Companies
 International efforts
 Challenges to sustainable Development