◇ In 1960, the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states–Maharashtra for Marathi speaking people and Gujarat for Gujarati speaking people.

◇ Gujarat was established as the 15th state of the Indian Union.


◇ The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation in 1954.

◇ Subsequently, the administration was carried on till 1961 by an administrator chosen by the people themselves. It was converted into a union territory of India by the 10th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961.


◇ India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961.

◇ They were constituted as a union territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962.

◇ Later, in 1987, Goa was conferred a statehood.9 Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.


◇ The territory of Puducherry comprises the former French establishments in India known as Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and

◇ The French handed over this territory to India in 1954.

◇ Subsequently, it was administered as an ‘acquired territory’, till 1962 when it was made a union territory by the 14th Constitutional Amendment Act.


◇ In 1963, the State of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the state of Assam.

◇ This was done to satisfy the movement of the hostile Nagas.

◇ However, before giving Nagaland the status of the 16th state of the Indian Union, it was placed under the control of governor of Assam in 1961.


◇ In 1972, the political map of Northeast India underwent a major

◇ Thus, the two union territories of Manipur and Tripura and the sub-state of Meghalaya got statehood and the two union territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (originally known as North-East Frontier Agency–NEFA) came into being.

◇ With this, the number of states of the Indian Union increased to 21 (Manipur 19th, Tripura 20th and Meghalaya 21st).

◇ Initially, the 22nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1969) created Meghalaya as an ‘autonomous state’ or ‘sub-state’ within the state of Assam with its own legislature and council of ministers.

◇ However, this did not satisfy the aspirations of the people of Meghalaya.

◇ The union territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were also formed out of the territories of Assam.


◇ In 1966, the State of Punjab was bifurcated to create Haryana, the 17th state of the Indian Union, and the union territory of Chandigarh.

◇ This followed the demand for a separate ‘Sikh Homeland’ (Punjabi Subha) raised by the Akali Dal under the leadership of Master Tara Singh.

◇ On the recommendation of the Shah Commission (1966) :-

• the Punjabi-speaking areas were constituted into the unilingual state of Punjab,

• the Hindi-speaking areas were constituted into the State of Haryana and

• the hill areas were merged with the adjoining union territory of Himachal Pradesh.

◇ In 1971, the union territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated12 to the status of a state (18th state of the Indian Union).

Also Read