Born:19 February 1630, Shivneri Fort, Kusur
Died:3 April 1680, Raigad Fort
Shivaji Raje Bhonsle (1674-80)

Born in the hill fortress of Shivmer in Poona on Feb 19, 1630

Belonged to the Bhonsle clan of Marathas.

His mother was Jijabai.

Shivaji, influenced by Dadaji Kondev (his teacher), Sufi saint Pir Shaikh Yacub, Guru Ramdas, Tukaram, Hazrat Baba of Ratnagiri, Ramayana, and the Mahabharata.

He started his career as an independent young prince at Poona and Supa in 1637.

After the death of Dadaji Kondadev in 1647 Shivaji assumed full charge of his jagir.

In 1646, he captured Torna from Bijapur and built the fort of Raigarh.

By 1654, Shivaji had captured forts in the Western Ghats and along the Konkan coast.

Shivaji and his elder brother defeated invading armies of Adil Shah and secured the release of their father.

He raided the Portuguese settlement at Daman.

The battle of Pratapgarh in 1659 was fought between Afzal Khan (represented by Adil Shah of Bijapur) and Shivaji.

Shivaji killed Afzal Khan with his tiger claws and became a local hero.

He won the Battle of Kolhapur against Rustemjaman (represented by Adil Shah of Bijapur).

Aurangzeb considered Shivaji a mountain rat.

In 1660, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan to fight against Shivaji, but the war continued till 1663.

In 1663 in a night attack on Shaista Khan, Shivaji injured him and killed his son.

Shivaji sacked the port of Surat, an important Mughal trading city in 1664.

Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh and Diler Khan, and they won and signed a treaty of Purander in 1665 with Shivaji.

His minor son Sambhaji was granted a mansab of 5000.

When Shivaji visited Agra with his son, was house arrested by Aurangazeb.

Shivaji escaped along with his son.

In 1670, he recovered most of his lost forts and attacked Surat for the second time.

Shivaji defeated the Mughals in the Battle of Salher in 1672.

Shivaji was coronated on 6th June 1674 at Raigarh.

He assumed the title Maharaja Chattrapati Haindava Dharmodharak (Protector of Hinduism).

Shivaji issued the gold coin, Shivaraihon, on this occasion.

He died in 1680 at the age of 53.

Shivaji promoted Sanskrit, but respected all religions and opposed the forced conversion.