Making Of The Constitution
|1922||Mahatma Gandhi demanded that people of India should have rights to choose. Gandhiji said “Swaraj will not be a free gift of the British Parliament. It will be a declaration of India’s full self-expression. That it will be expressed through an act of Parliament is true. Swaraj can never be a free gift by one nation to another. It is a treasure to be purchased with a nation’s best blood. It will cease to be a gift when we have paid clearly for it”.|
|1928||Motilal Nehru was appointed as the Chairman in 1928 “to determine the principles of the constitution for India”. The Nehru report was submitted on 10 August 1928. Most of its features were later included in the Constitution of India. The Nehru’s report laid special emphasis on securing fundamental human rights for the people of India. This was the 1st attempt by Indians to frame a full-fledged Constitution for India.|
|1934||M N Roy demand for Constituent Assembly for India for the first time.|
|1935||In the year 1935, the Indian National Congress for the first time officially demanded the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.|
|1939||World War II broke off|
|1940||The demand for the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY was for the first time and authoritatively conceded by the British Government in the year 1940 through August Offer. This offer was rejected by all the shades of nationalists and the Congress Party started the Individual Civil Disobedience movement to register their protest. The coalition government in England recognised the principle that the Indians should themselves frame a new Constitution.|
|1942||Sir Stafford Cripps (Cabinet Minister) came to India with a proposal of the framing of Independent Constitution of India to be adopted after World War II provided that the 2 major political parties INC and the Muslim League could come to an agreement. The Muslim League rejected the same on the demand that India be divided into 2 autonomous states into communal lines with 2 separate CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLYs.|
|1942||Quit India Movement started in August 1942.|
|1945||World War II (came to end), and the new labour party government came to the power in England.|
|1945||Simla Conference held at the instance of the viceroy, Lord Wavell.
– The Simla Conference of 1945 was arranged by Lord Archibald Wavell and the major political parties in India.
– This was convened to agree up on the Wavell plan for Indian self Government to provide separate representation to Muslims.
– The talks failed
|1946||Cabinet Mission plan (Lord Pethick-Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A V Alexander ) was sent on March 24, 1946, to India with a proposal of CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.|
|1946||Constituent Assembly (Formation and first meeting) was constituted in November 1946 with 389 members (296 British India and 93 were from princely states).
Out of 296 INC won 208 including all general seats except 9, Muslim League 73, others and independent members 15.
Muslim League: 73
Unionist Muslim: 1
Unionist Scheduled Castes: 1
Krishak Praja: 1
Scheduled Castes Praja: 1
Sikh (non-congress): 1
– Pandit Nehru was the Chairman.
– Except for Mahatma Gandhi and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, all prominent persons were members in CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.
– Princely states initially decided to stay away from the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.
– The first meeting was held on December 9, 1946. The meeting was attended by 211 members only.
– Muslim League boycotted the meeting and insisted on separate state Pakistan.
– Dr.Sachchidanand Sinha – interim President of CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.
– H C Mukherjee – Vice President of the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY.
– B N Rau – Constitutional advisor.
– December 13, 1946 – “Objectives Resolution” was moved by Jawaharlal Nehru. The “Objective resolution” was adopted on January 22, 1947. Preamble was the modified version of the Objectives Resolution.
|1947||Lord Mountbatten replaced Lord Wavell as Viceroy of India|
|June 3, 1947||Lord Mountbatten came out with a plan, a formal shape was given by a statement made by British Government on June 3, 1947. It is popularly known as the June 3rd plan or Mountbatten Plan|
|1947||Indian Independence Act was passed in the British parliament. It was introduced on July 4, 1947, and came into force on July 18, 1947. The Indian Independence Act of 1947 provided that from August 15, 1947, would be set up two independent dominions India and Pakistan.|
|1947||Partition. The members of the Pakistan area in the Constituent Assembly are ceased to be the members.|
|1947||Independence to Indian and Pakistan. With Indian Independence Act of 1947, CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY became the sovereign body. (India became sovereign on January 26, 1950)|
|1948||Draft of Indian Constitution introduced by Dr B R Ambedkar on November 4, 1948 (1st reading).|
|1949||Constitution was adopted on November 26th.|
|1950||Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950.|
After the partition, the Constituent Assembly re-assembled on October 31, 1947, with 299 members. The CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY became the first parliament of free India.
CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY adopted the:
– National Flag on July 22, 1947
– Constitution on November 26, 1949
– National Anthem on January 24, 1950
– National Song on January 24, 1950
January 24 1950 was the last session of the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY. The Constituent Assembly continued as the provisional Parliament of India from January 26, 1950, to till the completion of first ever general elections in India. (1951-52). There were 22 committees constituted in the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY: 10 committees were for procedural affairs and the rest 12 Committees were on Sustentative (Sustentative or Considerable) Affairs.
|The First President of India||Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected on January 24, 1950.|
|The First speaker||G V Mavalankar|
|Steering Committee chairman||K M Munshi|
|The Rules of procedure committee chairman||Dr Rajendra Prasad.|
|Drafting committee chairman||Dr. B R Ambedkar.|
|Union powers Committee chairman||Jawaharlal Nehru.|
|Committee on Union Constitution Chairman||Jawaharlal Nehru.|
|Provincial Constitution Committee chairman||Sardar Patel.|
|Committee of Fundamental Rights and Minorities head||Sardar Vallabhai Patel.|
– The drafting committee was set up on August 29, 1947 (Very Important), and the first constitutional draft was prepared by B N Rau (Advisor to the Constituent Assembly).
– The final draft was introduced in the CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY by Dr B R Ambedkar on November 4, 1948 (1st reading).
– The 3rd reading was completed on November 26, 1949, and then it was adopted as “draft Constitution”.
– The Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950. Since then January 26 is celebrated every year as the Republic day. The President and the members of the Constituent Assembly signed it.
– It appointed Lord Louis Mountbatten as the first Governor-General and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as the first Prime Minister of India.
– The original Constitution contained 8 schedules and 395 Articles. The preamble was enacted after the enactment of the Constitution. (Remember “Preamble” was the last to be adopted and enacted).
– In all, it took 2 years 11 months and 18 days for the Constitution to get completed.
– The Provisional Parliament ceased to exist on April 17, 1952. The first elected Parliament (2 houses) came into being in May 1952.
– The provisions related to Citizenship, elections, provincial Parliament, temporary and transitional provisions were given immediate effect. (November 26, 1949).
– The rest of the Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950.
Dr BR Ambedkar is regarded as the Father of the Constitution of India. He was the first Law Minister of the Nation from August 15, 1947 to January 26, 1950.