History Syllabus, UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam
History Syllabus – UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam
UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Each paper is of 300 marks, making a total of 600 marks.
PAPER – I
Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources:
Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history:
Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization:
Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures:
Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period:
Expansions of Aryans in India.
Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas:
Formation of States (Mahajanapada) : Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.
Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire:
Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration; Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.
Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
8. Post – Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas):
Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.
9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:
Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:
Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.
11. Regional States during Gupta Era:
The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:
Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.
13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
– Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the Peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs – The Cholas: administration, village economy and society
– Indian Feudalism
– Agrarian economy and urban settlements
– Trade and commerce
– Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order
– Condition of women
– Indian science and technology
14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
– Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa
– Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism
– Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India
– Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting
15. The Thirteenth Century:
– Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success – Economic, social and cultural consequences
– Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans – Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban
16. The Fourteenth Century:
– “The Khalji Revolution”
– Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territtorial expansion, agrarian and economic measures
– Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq
– Firuz Tughluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account
17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
– Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement
– Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture
– Economy: Agricultural production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce
18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy:
– Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids
– The Vijayanagra Empire
– Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur and Humayun
– The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration
– Portuguese Colonial enterprise
– Bhakti and Sufi Movements
19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture:
– Regional cultural specificities – Literary traditions
– Provincial architecture
– Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
– Conquests and consolidation of the Empire
– Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems
– Rajput policy
– Evolution of religious and social outlook, theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy
– Court patronage of art and technology
21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
– Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
– The Empire and the Zamindars
– Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb
– Nature of the Mughal State
– Late Seventeenth century crisis and the revolts
– The Ahom Kingdom
– Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries:
– Population, agricultural production, craft production
– Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution – Indian mercantile classes, banking, insurance and credit systems
– Condition of peasants, condition of women
– Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth
23. Culture in the Mughal Empire:
– Persian histories and other literature
– Hindi and other religious literature
– Mughal architecture
– Mughal painting
– Provincial architecture and painting – Classical music
– Science and technology
24. The Eighteenth Century:
– Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire
– The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh
– Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas
– The Maratha fiscal and financial system
– Emergence of Afghan Power, Battle of Panipat:1761
– State of politics, culture and economy on the eve of the British conquest
PAPER – II
1. European Penetration into India:
The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal -The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
2. British Expansion in India:
Bengal – Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.
3. Early Structure of the British Raj:
The early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De -industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
5. Social and Cultural Developments:
The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western
education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India.
6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas:
Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism – the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
7. Indian Response to British Rule:
Peasant movements and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (18991900); The Great Revolt of 1857 – Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.