List of amendments of the Constitution of India

Amendments of the Constitution of India
No.AmendmentsEnforced sinceObjectives
1Amend articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
Insert articles 31A and 31B.
Insert schedule 9.
18 June 1951Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law
2Amend article 81(1)(b).1 May 1953Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b).
3Amend schedule 7.22 February 1955Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of 4 classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oil cakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.
4Amend articles 31, 35 band 305.
Amend schedule 9.
27 April 1955Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution
5Amend article 3.24 December 1955Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.
6Amend articles 269 and 286.
Amend schedule 7.
11 September 1956Amend the Union and State Lists with respect to raising of taxes
7Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232.
Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8.
Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7.
1 November 1956Reorganization of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union Territories
8Amend article 334.5 January 1960Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970
9Amend schedule 1.28 December 1960Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.
10Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
11 August 1961Incorporation of Dadra, Nagar and Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
11Amend articles 66 and 71.19 December 1961Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college
12Amend article 240.
Amend schedule 1.
20 December 1961Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal
13Amend article 170.
Insert new article 371A.
1 December 1963Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A
14Amend articles 81 and 240.
Insert article 239A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
28 December 1962Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa
15Amend articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316.
Insert article 224A.
Amend schedule 7.
5 October 1963Raise retirement age of High court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalizing interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.
16Amend articles 19, 84 and 173.
Amend schedule 3.
5 October 1963Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligtory templates
17Amend article 31A.
Amend schedule 9.
20 June 1964To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution
18Amend article 3.27 August 1966Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganisation of Union Territories
19Amend article 324.11 December 1966Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts
20Insert article 233A.22 December 1966Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh
21Amend schedule 8.10 April 1967Include Sindhi as an Official Language
22Amend article 275.
Insert articles 244A and 371B.
25 September 1969Provision to form Autonomous states within the State of Assam
23Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334.23 January 1970Discontinued reservation of seats for the Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, both in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assembly and stipulated that not more than one Anglo-Indian could be nominated by the Governor to any State Legislative Assembly. Extend reservation for SC/ST and Anglo Indian members in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for another ten years, i.e. up to 1980.
24Amend articles 13 and 368.5 November 1971Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through amendments to the constitution
25Amend article 31.
Insert article 31C.
20 April 1972Restrict property rights and compensation in case the state takes over private property. However, the Supreme Court quashed a part of Article 31C, to the extent it took away the power of judicial review. This was done in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225 which for the first time enunciated the Basic structure doctrine.
26Amend article 366.
Insert article 363A.
Remove articles 291 and 362.
28 December 1971Abolition of privy purse paid to former rulers of princely states which were incorporated into the Indian Republic
27Amend articles 239A and 240.
Insert articles 239B and 371C.
15 February 1972Reorganization of Mizoram into a Union Territory with a legislature and council of ministers
28Insert article 312A.
Remove article 314.
29 August 1972Rationalize Civil Service rules to make it uniform across those appointed prior to Independence and post independence
29Amend schedule 9.9 June 1972Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
30Amend article 133.27 February 1973Change the basis for appeals in Supreme Court of India in case of Civil Suits from value criteria to one involving substantial question of law
31Amend articles 81, 330 and 332.17 October 1973Increase size of Parliament from 525 to 545 seats. Increased seats going to the new states formed in North East India and minor adjustment consequent to 1971 Delimitation exercise
32Amend article 371.
Insert articles 371D and 371E.
Amend schedule 7.
1 July 1974Protection of regional rights in Telangana and Andhra regions of State of Andhra Pradesh
33Amend articles 101 and 190.19 May 1974Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker
34Amend schedule 9.7 September 1974Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
35Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 2A.
Insert schedule 10.
1 March 1975Terms and Conditions for the Incorporation of Sikkim into the Union of India
36Amend articles 80 and 81.
Insert article 371F.
Remove article 2A.
Amend schedules 1 and 4.
Remove schedule 10.
26 April 1975Formation of Sikkim as a State within the Indian Union
37Amend articles 239A and 240.3 May 1975Formation of Arunachal Pradesh legislative assembly
38Amend articles 123, 213, 239B, 352, 356, 359 and 360.1 August 1975Enhances the powers of President and Governors to pass ordinances
39Amend articles 71 and 329.
Insert article 329A.
Amend schedule 9.
10 August 1975Amendment designed to negate the judgement of Allahabad High Court invalidating Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election to parliament. Amendment placed restrictions on judicial scrutiny of post of Prime Minister. The amendment was introduced and passed in the Lok Sabha on August 7, 1975 and again introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha on August 8, 1975. As many as 17 State Assemblies, summoned on Saturday, August 9 ratified this amendment and President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad gave his assent on Sunday, August 10 and the civil servants issued gazette notification on Sunday, August 10, 1975. As a consequence of this amendment to the Constitution of India, Supreme Court of India’s scheduled hearing on August 11, 1975 of Petition challenging Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s election became infructuous.Later however, Article 329A was struck down by the Supreme Court in case of Indira Nehru Gandhi vs Shri Raj Narain 1976 (2) SCR 347, for being in violation of basic structure.
40Amend article 297.
Amend schedule 9.
27 May 1976Enable Parliament to make laws with respect to Exclusive Economic Zone and vest the mineral wealth with Union of IndiaPlace land reform & other acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
41Amend article 316.7 September 1976Raise Retirement Age Limit of Chairmen and Members of Joint Public Service Commissions and State Public Service Commissions from sixty to sixty two.
42Amend articles 31, 31C, 39, 55, 74, 77, 81, 82, 83, 100, 102, 103, 105, 118, 145, 150, 166, 170, 172, 189, 191, 192, 194, 208, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 311, 312, 330, 352, 353, 356, 357, 358, 359, 366, 368 and 371F.
Insert articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A.
Insert parts 4A and 14A.
Amend schedule 7.
2 November 1976Amendment passed during internal emergency by Indira Gandhi. Provides for curtailment of fundamental rights, imposes fundamental duties and changes to the basic structure of the constitution by making India a “Socialist Secular” RepublicHowever, the Supreme Court, in Minerva Mills v. Union of India, quashed the amendments to Articles 31C and 368 as it was in contravention with the basic structure of the Constitution.
43Amend articles 145, 226, 228 and 366.
Remove articles 31D, 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A and 228A.
13 April 1978Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Repeals some of the more ‘Anti-Freedom’ amendments enacted through Amendment Bill 42
44Amend articles 19, 22, 30, 31A, 31C, 38, 71, 74, 77, 83, 103, 105, 123, 132, 133, 134, 139A, 150, 166, 172, 192, 194, 213, 217, 225, 226, 227, 239B, 329, 352, 356, 358, 359, 360 and 371F.
Insert articles 134A and 361A.
Remove articles 31, 257A and 329A.
Amend part 12.
Amend schedule 9.
6 September 1978Amendment passed after revocation of internal emergency in the Country. Provides for human rights safeguards and mechanisms to prevent abuse of executive and legislative authority. Annuls some Amendments enacted in Amendment Bill 42
45Amend article 334.25 January 1980Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 1990
46Amend articles 269, 286 and 366.
Amend schedule 7.
2 February 1983Amendment to negate judicial pronouncements on scope and applicability on Sales Tax
47Amend schedule 9.26 August 1984Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
48Amend article 356.1 April 1985Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to two years in the state of Punjab
49Amend article 244.
Amend schedules 5 and 6.
11 September 1984Recognize Tripura as a Tribal State and enable the creation of a Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council
50Amend article 33.11 September 1984Technical Amendment to curtailment of Fundamental Rights as per Part III as prescribed in Article 33 to cover Security Personnel protecting property and communication infrastructure
51Amend articles 330 and 332.29 April 1984Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
52Amend articles 101, 102, 190 and 191.
Insert schedule 10.
15 February 1985Anti Defection Law – Provide disqualification of members from parliament and assembly in case of defection from one party to other. However, parts of the 10th Schedule to the Constitution of India was struck down by the Supreme Court in the case of Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu 1992 SCR (1) 686, for being in contravention with Article 368 of the Constitution.
53Insert article 371G.20 February 1986Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.
54Amend articles 125 and 221.
Amend schedule 2.
1 April 1986Increase the salary of Chief Justice of India & other Judges and to provide for determining future increases without the need for constitutional amendment
55Insert article 371H.20 February 1987Special powers to Governor consequent to formation of state of Arunachal Pradesh
56Insert article 371I.30 May 1987Transition provision to enable formation of state of Goa
57Amend article 332.21 September 1987Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Nagaland, Meghalaya, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assemblies
58Insert article 394A.
Amend part 22.
9 December 1987Provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of constitution as on date and provision to publish authentic Hindi translation of future amendments
59Amend article 356.
Insert article 359A.
30 March 1988Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years in the state of Punjab, Articles 352 and Article 359A amended to permit imposing emergency in state of Punjab or in specific districts of the state of Punjab
60Amend article 276.20 December 1988Profession Tax increased from a minimum of Rs. 250/- to a maximum of Rs. 2500/-
61Amend article 326.28 March 1989Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18
62Amend article 334.20 December 1989Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2000
63Amend article 356.
Remove article 359A.
6 January 1990Emergency powers applicable to State of Punjab, accorded in Article 359A as per amendment 59 repealed
64Amend article 356.16 April 1990Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to three years and six months in the state of Punjab
65Amend article 338.12 March 1990National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes formed and its statutory powers specified in The Constitution.
66Amend schedule 9.7 June 1990Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
67Amend article 356.4 October 1990Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to four years in the state of Punjab
68Amend article 356.12 March 1991Article 356 amended to permit President’s rule up to five years in the state of Punjab
69Insert articles 239AA and 239AB.1 February 1992To provide for a legislative assembly and council of ministers for Federal National Capital of Delhi. Delhi continues to be a Union Territory
70Amend articles 54 and 239AA.21 December 1991Include National Capital of Delhi and Union Territory of Pondicherry in electoral college for Presidential Election
71Amend schedule 8.31 August 1992Include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali as Official Languages
72Amend article 332.5 December 1992Provide reservation to Scheduled Tribes in Tripura State Legislative Assembly
73Insert part 9.24 April 1992Statutory provisions for Panchyat Raj as third level of administration in villages
74Insert part 9A, amend article 280.1 June 1992Statutory provisions for Local Administrative bodies as third level of administration in urban areas such as towns and cities
75Amend article 323B.15 May 1994Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals
76Amend schedule 9.31 August 1994Enable continuance of 69% reservation in Tamil Nadu by including the relevant Tamil Nadu Act under 9th Schedule of the constitution
77Amend article 16.17 June 1995A technical amendment to protect reservation to SC/ST Employees in promotions
78Amend schedule 9.30 August 1995Place land reform acts and amendments to these act under Schedule 9 of the constitution
79Amend article 334.25 January 2000Extend reservation for SC / ST and nomination of Anglo Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies for another ten years i.e. up to 2010
80Amend articles 269 and 270.
Remove article 272.
9 June 2000Implement Tenth Finance Commission recommendation to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre
81Amend article 16.9 June 2000Protect SC / ST reservation in filling backlog of vacancies
82Amend article 335.8 September 2000Permit relaxation of qualifying marks and other criteria in reservation in promotion for SC / ST candidates
83Amend article 243M.8 September 2000Exempt Arunachal Pradesh from reservation for Scheduled Castes in Panchayati Raj institutions
84Amend articles 55, 81, 82, 170, 330 and 332.21 February 2002Extend the usage of 1971 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
85Amend article 16.4 January 2002A technical amendment to protect Consequential seniority in case of promotions of SC/ST Employees
86Amend articles 45 and 51A.
Insert article 21A.
12 December 2002Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and Early childhood care until the age of six
87Amend articles 81, 82, 170 and 330.22 June 2003Extend the usage of 2001 national census population figures for statewise distribution of parliamentary seats
88Amend article 270.
Insert article 268A.
Amend schedule 7.
15 January 2004To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service Tax
89Amend article 338.
Insert article 338A.
28 September 2003The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes was bifurcated into The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes
90Amend article 332.28 September 2003Reservation in Assam Assembly relating to Bodoland Territory Area
91Amend articles 75 and 164.
Insert article 361B.
Amend schedule 10.
1 January 2004Restrict the size of council of ministers to 15% of legislative members & to strengthen Anti Defection laws
92Amend schedule 8.7 January 2004Include Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali as official languages
93Amend article 15.20 January 2006To enable provision of reservation(27%) for other backward classes (OBC) in government as well as private educational institutions
94Amend article 164.12 June 2006To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States including Madhya Pradesh, Orissa.
95Amend article 334.25 January 2010To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Sixty years to Seventy years
96Amend schedule 8.23 September 2011Substituted “Odia” for “Oriya”
97Amend Art 19 and added Part IXB.12 January 2012Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies.The amendment objective is to encourage economic activities of cooperatives which in turn help progress of rural India. It is expected to not only ensure autonomous and democratic functioning of cooperatives, but also the accountability of the management to the members and other stakeholders.
98To insert Article 371J in the Constitution2 January 2013To empower the Governor of Karnataka to take steps to develop the Hyderabad-Karnataka Region.
99Insertion of new articles 124A, 124B and 124C. Amendments to Articles 127, 128, 217, 222, 224A, 231.13 April 2015[104]The amendment provides for the formation of a National Judicial Appointments Commission. 16 State assemblies out of 29 States including Goa, Rajasthan, Tripura, Gujarat and Telangana ratified the Central Legislation, enabling the President of India to give assent to the bill. The amendment was struck down by the Supreme Court on 16 October 2015.
100Amendment of First Schedule to Constitution1 August 2015Exchange of certain enclave territories with Bangladesh and conferment of citizenship rights to residents of enclaves consequent to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.
101Amendment of article 248,249,250,268,269,270,271,286,366,368,sixth schedule,seventh schedule. Deletion of Article 268A,8 September 2016Goods and Services Tax Bill

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