1. Write an essay in about 300 words on any one of the following: (100)

(a) Knowledge is power
(b) Consequences of globalization
(c) Value of yoga
(d) Science and human happiness
(e) Tourism in India

2. Read the following passage and answer in your own words the questions that follow: (5 x 15 = 75)

The world we live in presents an endless variety of fascinating problems which excite our wonder and curiosity. The scientific worker attempts to formulate these problems in accurate terms and to solve them in the light of all the relevant facts that can be collected by observation and experiment. Such questions as ‘What, ‘How’, ‘Where’ and ‘When’ challenge him to find the clues that may suggest possible replies. Confronted by the many problems presented by, let us say, an active volcano, we may ask ‘What are the lavas made of? How does the volcano work and how Is the heat generated? Where do the lavas and gases come from? When did the volcano first begin to erupt and when is it likely to erupt again?

In terms of chemical compounds and elements, the question ‘How’ refers to processes — the way things are made or happen or change. The ancients regarded natural processes as manifestations of energy acting on or through matter. Volcanic eruptions and earthquakes no longer reflect the erratic behaviour of the gods of the underworld; they arise from the action of the earth’s internal heat on and through the surrounding crust. The source of the energy lies in the material of inner earth. In many directions, of course, our knowledge is still incomplete, only the first of the questions we have asked about volcanoes, for example, can as yet be satisfactorily answered. The point is not that we now pretend to understand everything but that we have faith in the orderliness of natural processes. As a result of two or three centuries of scientific investigation, we have come to believe that Nature is understandable in the sense that when we ask questions by way of appropriate observations and experiments, she will answer truly and reward us with discoveries that endure.

(a) How does the author describe the task of the scientific worker?
(b) Why does the author speak about volcanoes?
(c) What does the equation ‘How’ refer to?
(d) How did the ancients look upon volcanoes and earthquakes?
(e) What does the author say about our knowledge of the world?

3. Make a précis of the following passage, in your own words, in about 230 words, on the special précis-sheets provided. Marks will be deducted for précis not written on the précis sheets. Marks will also be deducted if your précis is much longer or shorter than the prescribed length. The précissheets should be securely fastened inside the answer book. State the number of words used by you in your précis. (75)

No amount of improvement and reconstruction in education will bear much fruit if our schools and colleges are undermined by indiscipline. An impartial examination makes it clear that students and teachers alike need more of the spirit of discipline. If proper education is to be given, acts of indiscipline prevalent in our educational institutions have to be checked. Indiscipline may take the shape of group indiscipline or individual indiscipline. Group indiscipline is the worse of the two. While as individuals many of our students are as good as students elsewhere, the tendency to group indiscipline has increased in recent years. Many causes have led to this group indiscipline. For various reasons under a foreign regime, acts of indiscipline became frequent, often necessitated by the political activities, which were launched against a foreign government. While there may have been justification for such indiscipline under different political circumstances, we feel that there is no justification on for such acts of indiscipline after the attainment of independence. The democratic constitution which the country has adopted permits the redressing of grievances through democratic machinery. It would be against all principles of democracy if such acts of indiscipline were to continue.

The real purpose of education is to train youth to discharge the duties of citizenship properly. All other objectives are incidental. Discipline, therefore, should be the responsibility of parents, teachers, the general public and the authorities concerned. There are some positive factors promoting discipline. The Indian student’s natural tendency is to be disciplined. It is only when forces act strongly on him that he may sometimes be led astray. He appreciates rules and is normally inclined to abide by them. Much can be done to encourage this trend in school and college life. Personal contact between teacher and pupil is essential. Emphasis is also to be laid on the role of the class teacher or tutorial guide in promoting general discipline and the welfare of the pupils. Further a greater responsibility should devolve upon the students themselves in the maintenance of discipline. Nothing is more calculated to develop a proper sense of self-discipline and proper behaviour than their enforcement, not by any outside authority with any symbol of punishment but by the students themselves. They should choose their own representatives to see that proper codes of conduct are observed.

Another important method of bringing home to pupils the value of discipline is through group games. It is on the playing fields that the virtue of playing the game for its own sake and the team spirit can be cultivated. Such extracurricular activities as Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, the National Cadet Corps, Junior Red Cross and Social Service activities will promote a proper spirit of discipline. The building up of a truly harmonious and united form of community life should be the endeavour of all progressive educational institutions.

Besides these positive factors, certain negative factors also promote discipline. The discipline of the youth of any country depends upon the discipline that is exercised by the elders. It is a well – known fact that in all democracies election time is a time offeverish activity not always conducted in the most healthy spirit, and the utilization by politicians of immature minds like students for purposes of electioneering campaigns, with or without slogans attached thereto, is not calculated to promote sound discipline among students. It should be considered an election offence for any member or party to utilize the services of pupils under the age of 17 in political or civic campaigns. Besides, while the educative value of leading politicians addressing our students from time to time may be readily admitted, the tendency often is for the leaders not to speak to the audience before hem but to a wider audience whose attention they wish to attract through the press. It is not necessary that every speech made by a politician should be a political speech. Lastly, discipline among students can only be promoted if there is discipline among the staff. The teacher and the educational administrator should realize that their activities are all being watched by their pupils. To what extent, therefore, both in their personal conduct and in their general attitude to all problems concerning their country, they have to realize that there are limitations within which they must act for the best interests of education. Ultimately, it is the school or college atmosphere and the quality of the teachers there that ensure proper codes of conduct and discipline among our students.

4. (a) Fill in the blanks using appropriate forms of the words given below: 10

Value, offend, strike, jealous, put, grant, disturb, learn, fly, economic
(i) The man …………………. into a rage and tore away his garments.
(ii) A sensible man never takes everything for ………………
(iii) No one seems to have taken ……………….at her manners.
(iv) When are you ………………out to sea again?
(v) I have no mind to trespass upon you ………………..time.
(vi) Try to rise above petty personal …………………
(vii) The officer ………………….through one paragraph and accepted the rest.
(viii) The report I have received is very …………………indeed.
(ix) She has sent her paper to a ………………..journal.
(x) These new measures will give a boost to our ………………………

(b) Use each of the following words in two separate sentences, first as a noun and then as a verb: 10
(i) tum
(ii) spell
(iii) part
(iv) contact
(v) meet

(c) Rewrite the following sentences as directed:

(i) You are too early for the show. (Use “enough”)
(ii) The Mahanadi is not as long as the Gange. (Use the comparative degree)
(iii) Varsha readily complied ……………..my request. (Fill in the gap with a preposition)
(iv) We are sure of his honesty. (Change into a complex sentence)
(v) Santa said, “Don’t open the window.” (Change into the indirect form)

5. (a) Correct the following sentences: 10

(i) May 1 now take your leave?
(ii) The soup will taste better if it had more salt in it.
(iii) Is he used to come late everyday?
(iv) Your daughter is twelve years old, isn’t it?
(v) We must be true to our words.
(vi) Datta is living here since 1998.
(vii) A twenty miles walk is really very hard.
(viii) We watched the man to disappear in the woods.
(ix) Kalidas has written Meghadutam.
(x) Let’s have coffee.

(b) Of the words given in brackets, choose the one you think appropriate to fill in the blanks (10)

(i) He seems to be…………….. to hard work. (adverse; averse)
(ii) The building does not ………………..to safety regulations (conform; confirm)
(iii) Asharam was accused of …………the workers against the management. (exciting; inciting)
(iv) Rescue workers rushed to the site of the plane…………… (crass; crash)
(v) Gagan uses expensive ………….for his letters. (stationery; stationary)
(vi) The factory was ………………making toys. (seized; ceased)
(vii) Shakil is …………….. at solving difficult crossword puzzles (ingenuous; ingenious)
(viii) I wish you a …………….. recovery (fast; speedy)
(ix) Everybody said that her decision was ………………. (judicious; judicial)
(x) You will have to ………………. your afternoon tea as we have no more sugar.
(forego; forgo)

(c) Use the following phrases in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 5

(i) deal in
(ii) prime of life
(iii) above board
(iv) dwell upon
(v) in full swing