In the entire creations of God, human beings are the most highly evolved specie. They are capable of becoming glorious personalities, beautiful and peaceful angels. But in the modern era, there has been much degradation in the value system, leading to all round problems. Thus, it is high time to go to the root of the problems and breakaway the shackles, in order to evolve and ascend. There is no peace within the modern human beings. Everyone is groping for solutions. With our limited intellect we resolve certain
problems. However, we are faced with newer ones soon after. Experience shows that the lasting solution lies not in the material circumstances outside, but within us. We have to emerge from within, through inner collective transformation. In this Unit, we shall discuss values and
Ethics, and see how inculcating these values help us in developing Holistic Competence, which is the only solution to our problems both in Good Governance and self-governance.

We shall also start our effort towards this new type of Selfdevelopment.


  • After working on this Unit, you will be able to:
  • Explain Importance of Values for Good Governance.
  • State need of self-development for Holistic Competence.
  • Do mind stilling exercise.


Values flow from the highest of our own self. For each one of us, there are values rooted in the finest part of the self from where we radiate outwards. These values are an inbuilt mechanism, which distinguishes the right from the wrong, the Do’s and Don’ts of any action, even when no one is looking. Values are concerned with character and conduct of a person and evaluate the voluntary and habitual actions of individuals with reference to their being right or wrong.

They are moral principles or standards, which define what is right and good in human conduct.

There is another view on the values, that this selfmanaging mechanism is not intuitive, but it is acquired from the environment by continuous teaching and the behaviour of others, especially the superior in age and statues, as perceived by an individual. We cannot deny the impact of
environment, society and family on an individual for the values he imbibes. At the same time, we cannot deny the fact that the source of values is within, which guides one in making choice in acquisition of learning from the environment.

We can say that there are uniform (Universal) values inbuilt in each one of us. They flow out of the highest of our own self, our ultimate holistic potential. They refer to our intrinsic humanness. Individual or personal values vary to the extent one is conscious towards this inner source and
the extent to which one tends to compromise with it in the given cultural environment and other compulsions.

Thus both the source within and the cultural environment are
important for inculcation of values.

Further some degree of variance is possible in value systems in different social environments, in which a person lives and acts- be it the family, the neighbourhood, the place of work, the community or the country at large. However, at the root of all the value systems, there are certain Universal
Values, which are uniformly accepted. Such values lead to the betterment of the entire humanity. In the given culture, some deviations may come in the value-system due to the compulsions of the circumstances then prevailing. Such deviations hold good in those circumstances and time only,
but do not hold good forever.

For example wearing of five symbols of Sikhism were made compulsory during the wartime in eighteenth century. Marrying upto four women in Muslims was allowed when male population had reduced drastically due to war. Such customs are not relevant in the modern times, but due to
conditioning, they keep following the same practices. Many social evils like untouchability, child marriage and castesystem also become part of a value system. Thus none of the value systems is perfect in absolute terms. The nearer a value system is to the Universal values, the better it is in
terms of virtues and righteousness. The deviations in the value systems only lead to conflicts and wars and are against human development.

There are certain qualities/emotions, which are accepted as Universal Human Values such as non-violence, gratitude, humbleness, forgiveness, integrity, honesty, patience, innocence etc.

Personal values are those principles, which govern our perceptions and action. For example the terrorist attack on 11th September 2001 on the twin towers of the World Trade Center at New York and Pentagon at Washington has shocked the world. Majority of the people who value peaceful life and non-injury would condemn the action, which has resulted in so much of damage to life and property. But the people who were behind the hijacking of the plane leading to the tragedy apparently had values of a different type. Those who are condemning the terrorist attack probably value the peace in a society, respect for life, not causing harm to innocent people as important values so that a society can peacefully progress. On the other hand, those who wilfully caused the terrorist attack are derived by different set of values. Such values are condemned by humanity and are not desirable as they are purely destructive.

Thus the set of traits as are not desirable are greed, anger, envy, arrogance, vindictiveness and vanity etc. Such qualities or traits, lead to destructive actions. When practiced over a period of time, they build into habits.
Desirable values derive a person to use his capabilities for positive actions, i.e. actions useful to humanity (and not self alone), while the undesirable values derive them for negative actions, which may result in his own benefit or fulfilment of desire, but are in a long run harmful to both the
society and the doer. Values guide us in deciding what is to be done and also the means that should be used for such action.


Let us go into the analysis as done by Swami Dayananda to explain the impact of “Values vis-à-vis our actions” on development of our personality:

‘Most of us have a well-assimilated personal value for money; whereas,
when it comes to speaking truth our value often is general and half
assimilated. When this is the case, what happens if there is a conflict between the

money–value and the truth-value? What if a situation arises where by telling a lie I can make an extra Rs. 500? Perhaps someone has offered to pay me the same amount of money for an item that I had originally paid for it. I had paid Rs 1,000 but I easily can say that I paid Rs. 1500 for this small lie I will gain an extra Rs.500. I know what that extra Rs. 500 can do for me, what comforts I can buy with it. On the other hand, it is not very clear to me what benefit speaking truth in this situation will be to me.

Should I tell the truth or should I lie? Which value will win? Very likely the assimilated value for money will be the victor. But, all the same, something goes on murmuring inside, “Speak truth, speak truth.”

I may lie but I will not be comfortable, because I will not be able to avoid what happens when I tell a lie. What happens? First, there is conflict; then there is guilt. I can ignore conflict but I cannot avoid guilt because I cannot
escape my half-value for truth. Guilt is a great irritantgreater than chillies! It is a very great irritant.

Once I have guilt I cannot have a fully comfortable self. Fulfilling an immediate end at the expense of a general value may bring some passing comfort but in the long run adds to the discomfort for myself by increasing my accumulation of guilt, large and small.

The Knower-Doer Split

Does anything else happen when I ignore general ethical standards? Yes. I create a “knower-doer” split in myself. For instance, when I lie, I become a speaker: speaking is an action, so as a speaker I am an actor-a doer. At the same time, I know what I am saying. I am aware that what I am saying is something contradictory to truth. Therefore, I, the knower, am in one position and I, the doer, am in another position. By my lie, I create a split, a division, between the knower-I and the doer-I. Everyone has a few lies like this.

What is your age? What is your income? What are your qualifications? When I make a series of lies like this I create a split in myself, the knower being one and the doer another.

I am not integrated. I have divided myself into an ‘ideal’ knower who values one course of action and the ‘actual’ doer who does something else. I have created a Dr. JekylMr.Hyde conflict within myself. Living with Jekyl and Hyde, one cannot get anything out of life. It is impossible.

Even in small things, the knower-doer split does harm. The knower
begins condemning me. I tell myself that I am useless, that I cannot do what I want to do, that I am not the person I want to be.

When I am ‘split’ I cannot fully enjoy anything…………… The quality of my life always suffers whenever I become ‘split’. To appreciate the beauty of life, to really be available to enjoy its comforts, I need to be ’together’. ‘Together’ is a good Western expression, which shows an intuitive appreciation of the problem of ’split’.

When my universal values are only half values, they will always have the potential of destroying my ‘togetherness’ producing a ‘split’ in me, when they yield to some immediate situational value.

The above analysis makes it clear that values are universal, absolute and beyond the situational, cultural, race and creed disparities. Our outer behaviour reflects how far we abide by this inner value-system. We can say that whatever our conduct ought to be when we are in tune with this inner source is what we term as Ethics. The more our conduct is in consonance with the inner values, the better composed and integrated our personality is.


‘Do not do unto others as you would not be done by’ (Atmani Pratikulani paresham na samachary), is the principle given in ‘Mahabharat’. The definition of Ethics is well concretized in this maxim. The same principle is repeated in Christianity-‘Do unto others as you would, they would do
unto you.’ Thus we should behave with others in the same manner as we expect them to behave with us. We can say Ethics are a code of conduct that we expect of others and so logically from ourselves also.

This means that we should not do anything, which is a deviation from our intrinsic humanness – Swabhav. If we are able to do this, our inner core will spontaneously manifest itself. Ethics is human conduct in the light of moral
principles, which may be viewed as the individual’s standard of conduct or as a body of social obligations and duties.

Our behaviour outside is a reflection of our values within, which
we radiate outwards thorough our action and deeds. Thus if the Values guiding an action are positive the results are positive. One the other hand if the values guiding a particular action are negative the ultimate outcome will be negative only.

Idealists such as PLATO have contented that there is an absolute good to which human activities aspire. Moral codes or ethics have frequently been based on religious absolves. The source of an ethical criterion has been
variously equated with religion and the good of the individual or a group. Religion has its influence on a society.

It ensures that the members follow the religious percepts. As already mentioned all religions originated in their times to guide us to the virtuous path for the well being of the humanity. They form the base of all values. The decline of religion in modern societies has led to erosion of values.
Seen with reference to Administration, Ethics is the system of moral principles/ Code of conduct, acting in the manner consistent with which is upheld as virtuous. Ethics are reflected in such right actions or deeds. Our conduct Rules also give a general rule that the Government Servants
should not do anything, which is unbecoming of a Government Servant.

We have seen that ‘Ethics in practice’ derive and flow from values in the being. We can sum-up the values and ethics relationship as follows:

  • Universal Values are absolutes beyond the dimensions of time and space. They stand alone, self-validated in their immutability. They flow out of the highest of our own self, our ultimate holistic potential, the acme of our existential reality.
  • Ethics is when we reflect this inner excellence in our attitudes decisions and action.
  • The play of values in the world is Ethics.

The effectiveness of a person depends on two factors. One is skills i.e. ability to do and the other is the values within that guide such action. In other words, however talented a person may be; his contribution to the society directly depends on the values he has imbibed. If the values
are negative like anger, ego, greed jealousy, vindictiveness etc., the higher skill will result in higher negative contribution. Charles Sobharaj, Osama Bin Laden, Harshad Mehta and the like are examples of such high skill and low values. The following figure makes the position clear:

In the modern era, we have very high skills in all the spheres. But the decline in value system all around is deteriorating the situation and resulting in overall unhappiness, insecurity and tensions. These in turn lead to all sort of health problems – physical, mental emotional and

Now let us see why we feel so concerned for the values and ethics.

‘Institute for Global Ethics’:

( why ethics matter?) “….……because we will not survive the 21st century
with the 20th century’s ethics.

The immense power of modern technology extends globally. Many hands guide the controls and many decisions move those hands. A good decision can benefit millions, while an unethical one can cripple our future.”

One hundred years ago, humanity had less power and less reach. Catastrophe meant natural disasters such as the Krakatau volcano, the potato famine, and the San Francisco earthquake. But in this century, poor ethical judgement has produced such devastation as the grounding of the Exxon Valdez, the meltdown of reactor # 4 at Chernobyl, and the
failure of Barings Bank. Technology will advance exponentially into the 21st century. Imagine how much power we will have at our fingertips then!

It’s not just national leaders who have us in their grip. Technology empowers people at many levels and in many locations. Do they understand that ethics has consequences, and that their actions can have enormous impact? Will they make ethical decisions based on their highest moral values? Or will they simply do what’s expedient for whatever serves
their self-interest?

While the above situation is true for the whole world around, let us have a look at the situation in our own country with reference to ethics.

Our country is one of the oldest civilizations with a rich cultural and ethical heritage. However, there have been phases of degeneration of values in our history. At present, perhaps we are passing through one of the worst such
phases. Our Constitution as well as all our religious books are full of codes and directives on high values and ethics to be followed by the state as well as the society.

Notwithstanding these, there is perceptible change in the mind-set of the people towards achieving materialistic goals and prosperity irrespective of the “means” to be adopted.

Ironically, the society also respects material prosperity only because of visible glamour attached with it with little regard to higher values of simplicity, honesty, hard-work, character building etc.

When we go further into the situation prevailing all around, both at micro-level and macro-level, our heart and mind gets shattered with the dilemma and chaos all around. We have thousands and thousands of complains to make, situations to mourn, acts to condemn, deprivations to grieve
upon …… there is no end. And we are surviving with a hope that one fine morning, one charismatic leader will come who will lead this country to the ethical state. But we are not able to find any such leader too. There is a saying that a country gets the kind of government it deserves’.

This is truly reflected in our present day society and calls for a serious introspection and concerted effort towards change in the social mind-set.

Values are formed, through a continuous process of interaction of individual with his environment. As we are born we are subject to the values and concepts of our parents, teachers and colleagues. But the institutions like home, school, elders, society etc. have also failed to a large
extent in their duties to regenerate and rejuvenate the system to bring-up citizens with value system of the highest order.

1.5 Where to start now?

The question thus arises from where should we start now? For understanding this important point, let us read a story told by Swamy Vivekananda in his book: The Vedanta


There was a poor man who wanted some money. Somehow he had heard that if he could get hold of a ghost, he might command him to bring money or anything else he liked; so he was very anxious to get hold of a ghost. He went about searching for a man who would give him a ghost, and at last
he found a sage, who could give him a ghost.

When he requested for a ghost, the sage asked him what he would do
with a ghost. “ I want a ghost to work for me. Teach me how to get hold of one, sir. I desire it very much”, replied the man. But the sage said:” Don’t disturb your-self. Go home”.

The next day the man went again to the sage and began to weep and pray: “ Give me ghost. I must have a ghost, sir, to help me.” At last the sage was disgusted and said: “ Take this charm, repeat this magic word, and a ghost will come.

And whatever you say to him he will do. But beware! They are terrible beings and must be kept continually busy. If you fail to give him work, he will take your life”. The man replied:” That is easy. I can give him work for his whole life”.

Then he went to a forest and after long repetition of the magic word, a huge ghost appeared before him and said: ‘ I am a ghost. I have been conquered by your magic; but you must keep me constantly employed. The moment you fail to give me work I will kill you”. The man said, “ Build me a
palace,” “Bring me money,” said the man. “ Here is your money,” said the ghost. “Cut this forest down and build a city in its place.” “That is done,” said the ghost. Anything more?

Now the man began to be frightened and though he could give him nothing more to do. He did everything in a trice. The ghost said, “Give me something to do or I will eat you up.” The poor man could find no further occupation for him and was frightened. So he ran and ran and at last reached the sage and said, “Oh, sir, save my life!” The sage asked him what the matter was, and the man replied: “ I have nothing to give the ghost to do. Everything I tell him to do he does in a moment, and he threatens to eat me up if I do
not give him work.” Just then the ghost arrived, saying, “ I will eat you up,” and he was about to swallow the man. Theman began to shake, and begged the sage to save his life.

The sage said: “ I will find you a way out. Look at that dog with a curly tail. Draw your sword quickly and cut the tail off and give it to the ghost to straighten out”. The man cut off the dog’s tail and gave it to the ghost, saying, “Straighten that out for me.” The ghost took it and slowly and carefully straightened it out, but as soon as he let it go, it instantly curled up again. Once more he laboriously straightened it out, only to find it again curled up as soon as he attempted to let go of it. Again he patiently straightened it out, but as soon as he let it go it curled up again. So he
went on for days and days, until he was exhausted and said:”

I was never in such trouble before in my life. I am an old, veteran ghost, but never before was I in such trouble. I will make a compromise with you. You let me off and I will let you keep all I have given you and will promise not to harm you.” The man was much pleased and accepted the offer gladly.

Swamy Vivekanand explains: This world is like a dog’s curly tail, and people have been striving to straighten it out for hundreds of years. But when they let it go, it curls up again. How could it be otherwise? So we should always
remember the instance of the curly tail of the dog.

We need not worry or make ourselves sleepless about the world. It will go on without each of us. Our worries will not help it. But when we stop worrying about the world, then alone will we be able to work well. It is the level-headed man, the calm man of good judgement and cool nerves, of great sympathy and love, who does good work and so does good to
himself. The one who is complaining all the time is foolish and has no sympathy. He can never straighten out the world, nor can he improve himself.

Zone of Discretion

Let us again have a look at the whole gamut of happenings mentioned at page 14-15. All these spheres are such with which we feel concerned. The spontaneous reaction is what can I do for improving the things. Can you
do something? Will there be any impact? What influence can you have? Many a times we do have the ideas for how the things can improve. But we are not really able to help them out, as everything is not in our control.

Let us consider the situation through a small activity. In the space given below, draw a big circle, as big as you can and name it ‘ my area of concern’

Now inside this big circle draw small circle, as small as possible. Name it ‘my area of influence’.

The real world situation with every one of us is something like this only. We feel concerned with number of issues and happening all around us, but we have no control over them. This is what we call ‘area of concern’. Still there is a small area, be it very small, but this is the area, where we can really do something. We have an influence and it is in our individual control. That is our ‘area of influence’.

This is the area where we can really make an impact. It may be too small and of little importance, when viewed with reference to the whole gamut, but this area alone is of utmost importance to each of us individually. How? If we put our energies to the area of concern the net result is not only zero
but goes in minus, because nothing is achieved and we are left most dissatisfied. However, if we withdraw our energies from all this big ‘area of concern’ and apply them in our ‘area of influence’; definitely a positive impact will be made, giving satisfaction. While the energy wasted in ‘my area of concern’ has the impact of reducing ‘my area of influence’, the energy utilized in ‘my area of influence’ will result in increasing this area. Slowly and slowly, this area will grow, which means our influence will start increasing. This area of influence only is our respective Zone of Discretion.

The message is very clear. We can start from our own self only, without looking at what others around are doing and how. This may be coupled with a positive attitude towards the world, which is explained as a curly tail of dog.

In other words we should not reject the world, but accept it the way it is. Thus in every situation where we are required to perform or act; we should not get upset by the various problems created by the systems and people around; but accept and visualize calmly the whole situations/conditions/problems around and think: ‘Given the
situation what best can I do and how?’

The way a river that originates from a high mountain makes its
path through all the barriers on the way; keeps gaining in volume
and might; and ultimately reaches its destination in the
peaceful arms of the vast ocean.

We never find it grumbling. All its way, it gives pleasure to the beholders, sweat water to the thirsty and charming music to the passers-by. In fact, the whole nature of the Creator works without trouble, because of the total harmony. Let us also maintain this natural rhythm.

As is well said by Marlyn Ferguson:

No one can pursue another to change. Each of us guards a gate of change, that can only be opened from inside. We cannot open the gate of another, either by argument or by emotional appeal.

Thus in this workbook we shall concentrate on developing our personal effectiveness and enhancement of personal capabilities ourselves. You may question, why should I as a person be interested in values? The basic
answer to this is ‘ for my own personal development.

Because, I want to become more peaceful and integrated person. For getting relief from day to day tensions. This is a kind of selfishness, which primarily helps me and in course of time, goes to help others in the family, society, organisation and the nation on the whole. Because it is the individuals who make a society, an organisation or a nation.

Thus: ∑ individuals = Organisation.

Values serve true, permanent, long-term self-interest. And at the same time, this journey of mine towards values will serve greater interests. Another thing, that is clearly to be borne in mind is that by my efforts to inculcate values in myself, I am not undergoing any sacrifice or doing any charity. It is my own interest. As is clear now, the source of values is within a human being, the need is to look within, work on self, by myself to improve the quality of my life.

Some practice is also deliberately introduced, as an activity, which we normally do not perform. This will help in engaging with self and for withdrawing for some moments from the external situations, so that the mind can relax and recharge its energies.


In our work situations, the organisational behaviour theories of the west guide us. As is obvious, these theories and practices which deal with only one-ninth of the Indian population while the eight-ninth of the Indian population is traditional (normative). The men in the fields of India are
guided by the insights embedded in the structure of Indian thoughts. Thus the western thoughts have not been able to lead us much ahead. It is important to look into our own Indian thought and find solutions therein.

The Indian philosophy has set the ultimate goals for humans and Indian
psychology provides practical methods in graded steps to march towards these goals. Thus Indian psycho-philosophy deals with both of these aspects to bring in holistic development of the individual.

Doubts may arise as to whether it is possible to progress and achieve the desired results by following the Indian thoughts and practices. Also whether it is possible to practically work on those principles in the today’s scenario.

Whether our indigenous thoughts are result oriented or not. For clarification we have to look into the Indian history and in the times when it was known as Golden Bird (sone ki chidia) for all its prosperity and richness.

The credit goes to all the saintly kings, from king Janaka to Ashoka, Akbar,
Harshabardhan and the like; who had put into practice human values ideology as given in Vedanta and the other ancient Indian thoughts. It is because of these values that we could sustain ourselves through all adversities and cruelties of the earlier invaders and the British Rule.

Our leaders like Tagore and Gandhi have lived the human values like purity and holiness, non-violence and moral courage.

Gandhi forcefully and convincingly demonstrated the power of spirit over material things. His greatest leverage was his command over the Indian masses. He gained such a command because the simple folk could understand that he was inspired from within.

They called him ‘Mahatma’. Merely by his hunger strike, the Mahatma could control behaviour of millions of people. He firmly derived his
political activities from dharmic principles and refused to compromise with what was wrong.

command over the Indian masses. He gained such a command because the simple folk could understand that he was inspired from within. They called him ‘Mahatma’. Merely by his hunger strike, the Mahatma could control
behaviour of millions of people. He firmly derived his political activities from dharmic principles and refused to compromise with what was wrong.

In Indian organisations, both private and public, a realisation has come that value based management and administration only can save us from the adverse consequences of the present situation.

Unless all the individuals who work for an organisation imbibe these
values, both in theory and practice, the system cannot change.

A systematic and successful effort in this direction has been made by Management Center of Human Values at Indian Institute of Management, Kolkata, since 1982-83.

Professor S.K. Chakrabarthy the Convener of the Centre, has conducted workshops on Human Values/ value System for Managerial effectiveness for the Managers of Bhilwara Group of companies, IPCL, IOC, Bharat Electronics Ltd, Godrej and Boyce, TELCO, RBI, BEL, and the managers from
abroad. These organisations have in turn conducted similar workshops for their officers and staff and have achieved both in terms of personal as well as organisational benefits.

In these workshops, Prof Chakraborthy has spelt out the practicality of Indian spiritual traditions and philosophy with the realities of management practices. In the field of politics, Gandhi had also applied an insight and approach that the spiritual and the mundane are not separate spheres. According to Prof. S.K. Chakrabarthy also, Value orientation is central for effectiveness as a Manager or an administrator.

How can we inculcate the Human Values and how can they be put into practice in the organisational set up? Our Indian Insights have the answer to this in purification of mind. Values emerge spontaneously and effectively only from a purified mind. The basic Indian goal of self-transformation towards a more refined spiritual consciousness and purer mind with its many paths and practices are more pertinent to many of the issues and
problems of Indian Administration than the current western models. To quote Shri C. Rajagopalchari again: “National character, again, depends on and in fact is individual rectitude. Movements for the encouragement of
personal rectitude, for purifying individual character, are therefore not irrelevant in the context of politics but are vitally connected with our hopes in respect of national affairs”.

Meditation provides us an opportunity to withdraw for a time being from the outer world and be with our inner source of values, the highest and the finest part of our own self. It also gives us a chance to introspect our own acts and deeds and rectify them by changing our thought process, withdrawing our mind from the vicious thinking and applying it in accordance with this higher source of values. This leads to purification of mind. Thus the effort to apply right thought for right actions in the organisation can only slowly go to improve our administration. Such an
effort then goes to have a multiplier effect.


This journey towards imbibing values (and not only discussing them) is based on ancient Indian classical work in the area of philosophy and psychology. Unlike in other countries where these two are dealt as separate subjects the Indian psycho-philosophy developed together.

The deep philosophical outputs are dealt with psychological experiences, which help the seeker to internalise them. They enable the learner to learn how to put into practice these rich thoughts so as to enhance practical

Such value based competence is much more efficient than the Professional competence. Professional competence is based only on development of skills and do not take care of means and thus the results are more visible and immediate, but are short lived as the approach is not holistic.

As against these, when the skills combined with values are used in wholesome manner, they result in long-term gains, though for a short-term it may be painful or more demanding. Skills, which are not value-based may often be misused. Thus in a long-term they are the failure. One has
to chose between ‘short-term gain and long-term pain’ or short-term pain and 1ong-term gain’. In value based skill development, we expand the definition of success, making it long-term, sustainable and wholesome. Such value-based skill development leads to ‘Existential or Holistic Competence’.

Thus: Skills Development leads to Professional competence.
Skills &Values Development leads to Holistic competence.
Value based actions also help in conservation of energy; where as the actions based on negative values dissipate our energy. The modem education and training both formal and informal, take care of professional competence only and there is no scope for development of existential competence.

While about 50 years back, development of such existential competence was imparted in natural way in the family, society and educational institutions. With increase in materialism, we have started chasing the worldly things, thus withdrawing our attention from consideration if our
actions are morally sound or not. Moral education has slowly been taken away. That is why today many of the successful persons are apparently successful, but are not real winners within themselves. Existential competence ensures both the success outside and survival within.

Thus one should hold on to the values even if they do not give the conventional pay off. We can see in the history also that the civilizations and cultures like Indian and Chinese, which have upheld values are able to survive, while those like Greece and Rome, which were high in skills but
poor in values have vanished. The success of Japan is based on values similar to Indians, using seishin kyooiku (Spiritual education) to counter the evils of industrialization and integrating the family values into management of organisations. The goal of this workbook is to enhance
existential competence and effectiveness by (a) developing sensitivity to human values and (b) imbibing those values.

All our efforts towards clean administration and good governance can bring about the long term improvements only if the individual functionaries are derived from within to take right actions. This goal can be achieved through all the effort on self (I) only.


He is (feeling) jealous. I am (feeling) angry.

My heart filled with (the feeling of) gratitude.

We should have (the emotion of) universal brotherhood.

In all the above sentences, we are talking about feelings, which are much more linked with heart than brain.

Values have much to do with emotions. A computer, which is artificial intelligence, is devoid of all these feelings. Let us have a look at the following two domains of emotions:

We do have sense of the values in both of these domains. We feel comfortable in the ambience of emotions given in domain A and are uncomfortable in the atmosphere filled with emotions given in domain B. There is affluence in the quality of emotions in domain A. They have a sense of fulfillment and have positive vibrations.

We call them positive values or Human-values. The domain B emotions
have some sort of poverty in quality and have negative vibrations. They give a sense of deficiency and we feel uncomfortable and tend to derive away from people in that emotional state. We may call them dis-values or negative emotions.

Thus for values-orientation (change/transformation), we have to work on emotions. Naturally the effort required is much more. On the one hand we have to develop/imbibe positive values and at the same time we should be aware of our negative emotions also, so that we can work them out.

It is very difficult to see into one’s own negative emotions. Because, one has some justification for everything that one does. Say if ‘A’ is angry, the rationale for being angry may be some one else has done something wrong; or everybody is angry, so what if 1 feel angry. Another factor is when
negative emotions overpower us, we are not able to think properly and do proper reasoning. As is well said:

“Greed (negative emotion) robs learned man of his wisdom”

The Geeta also warns:

“Desire, anger and greed are the gateways to the hell”

The word ‘emotion’ tends to be commonly used in a pejorative, negative sense. ‘That person is emotional’ is a way of stigmatising him or her. On the other hand there is much emphasis on intellect or reason. We should however also ponder over the fact that impact of both emotions and intellect can be positive or negative. When an emotion has a virtuous basis, e.g. compassion or maitri for the unhappy, it can inspire the intellect to act usefully, but when an emotion is vicious, e.g. envy, it can drive the intellect to act destructively. Emotion is indeed the motive power behind intellect. This is what must have promoted:

1.Einstein to declare:
‘And certainly we should take care not to make intellect our
God… The intellect has a sharp eye for methods and tools,
but is blind to ends and values’.

2.Russell to warn:
Science is no substitute for virtue…. If men were rational in their conduct… intelligence would be enough to make the world a paradise………. But men are actuated by passions which distort their view…That is why the heart is as important as the head… Where they (kindly impulses of the heart) are absent, science only makes man more cleverly diabolic.’

3.Vivekananda to affirm:

But the professor is bout by his intellect, and he can be a devil and an intellectual at the same time; but the man of heart can never be a devil; no man with emotion was a devil.’

4.Toynbee to detect:

‘The effect emotion exerts on human actions is as strong as-perhaps stronger than- that of reason. Consequently, emotion can get the upper hand and suppress theoretical knowledge, which is dependent on reason’.

The unanimity amongst some of the best contemporary eastern and western minds about the heart or emotion not itself being the arch villain, and about the intellect or reason not by itself being the supreme hero is
remarkable. Unless our emotions, our hearts are adequately cultured, intellect tends to play havoc. As already explained, intellect applied with negative emotions like jealousy, ego, selfishness brings disasters. While the application of intellect cannot be ignored at all, the same need to be
applied with balanced emotions.

Thus for inculcation of values, a proper training for bringing emotional balance in a personality is required. Infect a proper integration of
emotions and intellect can only result in right and holistic actions. Our Indian psychology lays emphasis on chittashuddhi, i.e. purification of heart or hridaya-vritti as the more important and prior requirement in human
development. The edifice of intellect or buddhi-vritti can be safely mounted only on such a base of pure heart only.

We are lately talking of emotional and spiritual intelligence because we are now able to realise their importance in the human development in real terms.


Man is endowed with organized, reflective consciousness and intelligence unlike the instinctive intelligence of a tiger or the underdeveloped mental system of a tree. Our brain keeps functioning even when we are
sleeping. Even the thought process rarely stops.

Neuropsychology in West today has rediscovered the truth that the human brain has two distinct but complementary powers. These are:

I: Rational, Sequential, logical, Segmented, Inductive, Analytical.
II: Emotional, Spatial, Synthetic, Impulsive, Intuitive, Holistic.

The first set, according to them is confined to the left hemisphere of the brain, and the second to the right. Now, the modern knowledge-oriented educational system puts exclusive emphasis on the development of the left
hemispheric powers of the brain. There is much more emphasis on development of analytical, logical and rational powers of the brain, while the development of emotional, intuitive and holistic powers of right hemisphere of brain is almost totally neglected.

Many really creative persons or genuine entrepreneurs are usually found to be comparatively less formally educated, or have somehow been able to retain their natural intuitive capacity even in the face of awesome analytical atmosphere. In March 1985, a management student asked
JRD Tata as to what he thought was the secret of his legendary success as India’s foremost industrialist.

The first confession he made was that he had no formal, professional
management education like the one the fortunate student was having. Yet it was quite apparent from the tone of his reply that he did not regret this too much. In the sphere of art and literature, the most towering figure in modem times like Rabindranath Tagore, Aristotle, Shakespeare and John
Keats had negligible formal education. Pure intuition was their prime asset. The original ideas and hypothesis of the greatest scientists too are intuitive flashes of pure consciousness in the first place.

As the values have much to do with emotions, the left hemisphere does not help in the transformation of values. While logic, intellect and reasoning can help us to see what is wrong and what is right, it does not give us capability to shun what is wrong and pursue/ follow that is right. As is
well said by Albert Einstein:
“The intellect has a sharp eye for methods and tools but it is blind to ends and values.”

Further, even if the intellect tells us about what is right and what is wrong, it does not ensure one’s propulsion towards the right and withdrawal from wrong. As in Mahabharata, Durayodhana tells Krishna:

I know Dharma, but 1 am not inspired to purse it.
I know Adharma, but I am not able to withdraw from it

All the factors in category-1 above are very important for skill development. (when we say skills, knowledge is part of it). The modern educational system has all its focus on developing the faculties of the left side of the brain – intellectual, rationale, logical thinking; while those of right
side are almost ignored.

This educational system can therefore, not help us in inculcating or transformation of values, which are emotions in nature. Unless the culture of noble values becomes part of educational system, values will remain a lip service only. Our brain and mind are two principle instruments, which are employed for doing work.

If the mind is not pure and the brain is half developed, the results naturally are going to be poor. Thus the felt need is to develop the faculties of right hemisphere i.e. emotional, impulsive. When we say feelings we automatically link them with heart. Thus purification of heart is required for inculcating Human Values. As Christ Says:

Blessed are those who are pure in heart.

Transformation of emotions from negative to positive emotions based on values comes through purification of Heart (chitta-shuddhi). A consistent effort through introspection for transformation of emotions from present
state to noble emotion is required. Mind-stilling exercise or meditation (Dhyana) helps in self-introspection and transformation. This leads to purification of mind (chitta shuddhi).

Sri Aurobindo: An unpurified heart, an unpurified senses, an unpurified life confuse the understanding, disturb its data, distort its conclusions, darken its seeing, misapply its knowledge.

So the power of brain is pure heart, or pure character.

Thus Chitta-shuddi is important for effectiveness. We thus have to see within, introspect our own self and discipline our selves. In the materialistic world, our attention has gone completely outwards, no attention is paid to the self within. The need is to interiorise our attention to our own
fine self, the consciousness. As is well said:

“Problem is not in the world, it is in our consciousness”.
“There is only one sin – Lapse of consciousness”.

How can we distinguish between mind and brain?

We may commonly say our mind is depressed or restless, but we do not say this for the brain. Moreover, the brain is a part of our physiology, while mind is a psychological concept. The nervous system in the brain may be receiving many signals from outside, but unless the mind is linked to them through the sense organs, they fail to make an impact. Finally, the surgeon can operate on the brain but not the mind.


Let us take an example of an emotion. Say ‘anger’. Is it harmful to be angry? Yes because when anger overpowers us, our consciousness lapses. We are not able to think and decide properly. As against becoming angry, there are wise and balanced people, who can use ‘anger’ as a tool.

They show anger for minding the people or children, but they actually love them and want their benevolence, such balanced people know how far to show anger and in what manner. When anger is used as a tool, it does not
overcome the consciousness. This balance can be achieved through inward and outward movement of the consciousness. Just as a child who is whirling a stone tied to his finger with a thread can keep it whirling because the outward force on the stone (centrifugal force) is balanced
by the inward force (centripetal force) given by his finger.

Movement of a satellite around the earth is also maintained in the balance of inward and outward force. The moment inward force of the finger (in case of child) or the gravitational force (in case of satellite) becomes less than outward force; the circular movement will get distorted and lost. In the same fashion, inward movement of consciousness or Introspection is very important for maintaining balance in life. When this inner connection is lost, we get swayed in the outward world.

Thus what is required is to sit with one’s own-self. And be one with our
consciousness, the values within. The values do not erode. Only our capacity to live up to those values erodes.

A great ‘Introvert’ will know at the same time how to be a great ‘Extrovert’ (here the example of Vivekananda seems to me to be conclusive). Interiorization has never led in principle to diminution of action. Arguments drawn from the supposed social passivity of mystic India are
entirely erroneous. The physical and moral de-vitalization of India during several centuries is due to quite different factors of climate and social economy. But we shall see with our own eyes that her Interiorization, where the fires of her threatened life have taken refuge, is the principle of her national resurrection.


Thus Indian psycho-philosophy is a complete science of interiorisation practiced by highly disciplined and altruistic minds down the ages of human history. When such minds project themselves into the network of human relationship, they can do nothing but good and only good.

There are many ways to interiorise our consciousness. We need to withdraw our attention from the outer world and move it inside so that we can develop insight to realize our own drawbacks. Only then the effort can be made to overcome them. The introspection process involves the
following three sequential steps, which lead to inculcation of values and thus developing Holistic Competence:

In to-days world, there is lot of mental disturbance and agitation. For developing concentration of mind, it is Holistic Competence necessary to gradually calm and still the mind. But the mind, which is constantly torn amid a riot of passion, emotions, ideas and desires, cannot become calm. This mind has to be made progressively clean and pure by consciously watching the thoughts, which are arising and up-lifting. We shall now under-go a process to make our mind calm and still.


Sit on a chair or on ground in a comfortable posture. If you are wearing something, which is tight on your body, you can loosen it, relax, close your eyes………… feel from your toe to head that you are relaxed.

Your mind is relaxed and you do not feel like moving any part of your body. Keep your attention on the fontanel area of your head, i.e. on the top of the head where small children have soft bene. Relax your mind and body. If any thoughts come just let them go.

 Suggest to yourself that you are becoming calm and peaceful
 You may continue to sit so for 5-10minutes or still longer.