Guru Nanak is the 1st Sikh Guru and founder of the Sikhism, who was also a NirgunaBhaktiSaint.
He was born in a village of Talwandi (now called Nankana, in Pakisthan), on the banks of the river Ravi in 1469.
Guru Nanak was opposed to all distinctions of caste.
He is also said to have met Babur.
After his death, his followers called themselves ‘Sikhs’ and a new religious sect, Sikhism, was founded.
Nanak was followed by nine Sikh gurus.
The 2nd guru, started the Gurumukhi script.
He started the tradition of Mall Akhara
The 3rd guru, began the institution of langar (commonkitchen) to abolish the caste system.
Preached against the Hindu society’s sati system and advocated widow-remarriage
Asked Akbar to remove the pilgrim’s tax for non-Muslims
4th guru, was given the site of Harmandir at Amritsar by Akbar.
Guru Ramdas also laid the foundation stone of Chak Ramdas or Ramdas Pur, now called Amritsar.
Composed the four Lawans (stanzas) of the Anand Karaj, a distinct marriage code for Sikhs.
5th guru, compiled 1st official edition of Sikh scripture Adi Granth,
Later it expanded into the Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru Arjan completed the construction of the Harmandir at Amritsar.
He installed the Adi Granth inside the new temple in 1604.
Guru Arjan was arrested asked to convert to Islam under the orders of Jahangir.
He refused, was tortured and executed in 1606.
6th guru, who was also imprisoned by Jahangir for ten years.
Longest tenure as Guru.
He transformed Sikhs into a militant community, established the Akal Takht, and fortified Amritsar.
Defeated a Mughal army at Sangrama.
Took the title of Sachcha Padshah.
Shifted his headquarters to Kartarpur.
Guru Hargobind was the proprietor of the concept of miri and piri
Guru Tegh Bahadur
The 9th guru, was executed by Aurangzeb
Guru Gobind Singh
10th and last guru
He passed the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Guru Granth Sahib.
Established the Khalsa in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib and organised the Sikhs into a military sect.
All his sons were killed by a Mughal army at Sirhind, and he was also slain by a Pathan in revenge.
The orthodox Sikhs are also distinguished by the five kakka (the five k’s), kesa (top knot), kachha (short drawers), kara (iron bangle), kanga (comb) and kirpan (sword)
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