The Sargasso Sea is a region of the Atlantic Ocean bounded by 4 ocean currents forming an ocean gyre. The Sargasso Sea, unlike other seas, isn’t defined by land borders but by a unique set of circulating ocean currents in the North Atlantic Ocean. This makes it the world’s only sea without a physical land boundary.

  1. Gulf Stream on the west
  2. North Atlantic Drift on the north
  3. Canary Current on the east
  4. North Atlantic Equatorial Current on the south

Unlike all other seas, it has no land boundaries. It is the only sea in the world which has no coast. It is distinguished from other parts of the Atlantic Ocean by its characteristic brown seaweed called Sargassum and often calm blue water.

Sargasso Sea is famous for its floating seaweed that covers large swathes of the ocean. But it also boasts an astounding wealth of biodiversity that has earned it the nickname “The Floating Rainforest of the Sea.”

The four ocean currents together form a clockwise-circulating system of ocean currents termed the North Atlantic Gyre. Bermuda is near the western fringes of the sea.

The four ocean currents deposit the marine plants and refuse that they are carrying into this sea, yet the ocean water in the Sargasso Sea is distinctive for its deep blue colour and exceptional clarity, with underwater visibility of up to 61m.

Key Characteristics:

  • Location: Enclosed by a clockwise gyre of currents in the North Atlantic, between 20°N and 35°N latitude and 30°W and 70°W longitude. The Gulf Stream forms its western boundary.
  • Sargassum seaweed: The defining feature of the Sargasso Sea is the abundance of Sargassum, a brown, free-floating seaweed that creates vast, floating mats. These mats provide a unique habitat for marine life.
  • Circulation: Bound by currents, the Sargasso Sea has weak internal currents, low precipitation, high evaporation, and calm winds. The warm waters are saline and range in depth from 5,000 to 23,000 feet.

Ecological Significance:

  • Habitat: The Sargasso Sea provides a vital habitat for a diverse range of marine species. Fish, crabs, prawns, and many others have adapted to life among the Sargassum.
  • Breeding Grounds: The Sargasso Sea is a crucial breeding ground for species like white marlin, dolphins, porbeagle sharks, and even endangered eels.
  • Endemic Species: The Sargasso Sea is home to unique species like the Sargassum fish and young eels called “leptocephali.”