Maharashtra State Service Main Examination contains 2 papers – General Studies I & General Studies II.
General Studies – I
History of Modern India (1818-1857) particularly Maharashtra:
Introduction of modern education – Press, Railway, Post and Telegraph, Industries, Land reforms and Socio-religious reforms – Its impact on society.
Establishment of British Rule in India:
Wars against major Indian powers, Policy of subsidiary alliance,Doctrine of Lapse, Structure of British Raj upto 1857.
Contacts with Christian Missions, coming of English education and the Press, Official-social reform measures (1828 to 1857). Socio-religious reform movements: Brahmo Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, Satyashodhak Samaj, Arya Samaj. Reform movements among the Sikhs and the Muslims, Depressed Classes Mission, Non-Brahmin movement and Justice Party.
Social and economic awakening:
Indian Nationalism – 1857 revolt and after, Indian National Congress (1885- 1947), Azad Hind Sena, Role of important personalities, Role of Press and Education in social awakening in pre- independent India.
Emergence and growth of Indian nationalism:
Social background, formation of National Associations, Peasant uprisings, foundation of Indian National Congress, the moderate phase, growth of extremism, Morley-Minto reforms, Home Rule movement, Lucknow pact, Mont-Ford reforms.
National movement in Gandhi Era:
Gandhiji’s leadership and ideology of resistance, Gandhian mass movements, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience, individual Satyagraha, Quit India movement. Satyashodhak Samaj, Gandhiji and removal of untouchability, Dr. B.R.Ambedakar’s approach to problem of untouchability, Muslim politics and Freedom movement (Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh movement, Muslim League and Ali Brothers, Iqbal, Jinnah), Unionist Party and Krishak Praja Party, Politics of Hindu Mahasabha, Communists and the Indian freedom struggle, Congress Socialist Party, Women in the National movement, States’ Peoples’ movements, Leftist Movement – Peseant Movement – Tribal uprising, Trade Union Movement and Adivasi Movement.
India after Independence:
Consequences of Partition, Integration of Princely states, Linguistic reorganisation of states, Nehru’s Policy of Non-alignment. Samyukta Maharashtra movement: major political parties and personalities involved therein, Relations with neighbouring countries, India’s role inInternational Politics. Progress in Agriculture, Industry, Education, Science and Technology. Emergence ofIndira Gandhi’s Leadership, Liberation of Bangladesh, Non-Alignment under Indira Gandhi, CoalitionGovernments in States; Students’ unrest, Jayaprakash Narayan and Emergency. Terrorism in Panjab andAssam. Naxalism and Maosim, Environmental Movement, Women’s Movement and Ethnic Movement.
Selected Social Reformers of Maharashtra- their ideology and work:
Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Mahatma Phule, M.G. Ranade, Prabodhankar Thakare, Maharshi Karve, Rajarshi Shahu Maharaj, Maharshi Vitthal Shinde, Babasaheb Ambedkar, Lokmanya Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Vinoba Bhave, Vinayak D. Sawarkar,Annabhau Sathe, Krantiveer Nana Patil, Lahuji Salve, Karmaveer Bhaurao Patil.
Cultural Heritage of Maharashtra (Ancient to Modern) :
Performing Arts (Dance, Drama, Films, Music and Folk Arts, Lavani, Tamasha, Povada, Bharud, and other folk dances), Visual Arts (Architecture, Painting and Sculpture) and Festivals. Impact of Literature on socio – psychological development of Maharashtra: Bhakti,Dalit, Urban and Rural Literature.
Geography -With Special Reference To Maharashtra
Interior of the earth- composition and physical conditions. Factors controlling l andform development. Concept of geomorphic cycles- landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, and coastal cycle. Evolution and Geomorphology of the Indian Subcontinent- Major physiographic regions – Problems of floods – Physiographic details of Maharashtra. Geomorphic features of Maharashtra. India’sstrategic location with reference to her neighbours, Indian Ocean Rim, Asia and the World.
Economic Geography of Maharashtra:
Minerals and Energy Resources: Their distribution, importance and development in Maharashtra. Tourism in Maharashtra – Religious Tourism, Medicinal Tourism, EcoTourism and Cultural Heritage. Reserved forests, Animal sanctuaries, National Parks and Forts in Maharashtra, Tiger Project.
Human and Social Geography of Maharashtra:
Migration of population, causes and effects, sugarcane cutting labourers – effects of migration on source and destination areas. Rural settlements in Maharashtra.Problems of Urban and Rural Settlements – Environmental, Housing, Slum, Water Supply and Sanitation,Urban Traffic and Pollution.
Ecology and Ecosystem- energy flow, material cycle, food chain and webs.Environmental degradation and conservation, global ecological imbalances- pollution and Greenhouse effect, role of CO2 and methane in greenhouse effect, global warming, reduction in bio-diversity and depletion of forests. Environmental laws and environmental impact assessment. Kyoto protocol and Carbon credits. Urban waste management. CRZ I and CRZ II.
Population Geography (with reference to Maharashtra):
Causes and consequences of migration. Rural and Urban settlements- site, situation, types, size, spacing and morphology. Urbanisation- process and problems. Rural – Urban Fringe, and sphere of urban influence. Regional imbalances.
Concept of remote sensing. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites. Imageries- IRS products, MSS bands- blue, green, red and near infra red, False Colour Composite (FCC). Application of remote sensing in natural resources. Introduction to Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS).
Geography And Agriculture:
Agroecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Climatic elements as factors of crop growth. Environmental pollution and associated hazards to crops, animals and humans.
Atmosphere- composition and structure. Solar radiation and heat balance. Weather elements temperature, pressure, planetary and local winds, monsoon, air masses and fronts and cyclones. Mechanism of Indian monsoon, monsoon forecast, distribution of rainfall, cyclones, droughts and floods, and climatic regions. Distribution of Rainfall in Maharashtra – spatial and temporal variability – Agroclimatic zones of Maharashtra – Problem of Drought and scarcity, DPAP (Draught Prone Area Programme) –Water requirement in Agricultural, Industrial and Domestic Sectors. Problem of Drinking Water. Cropping pattern in different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern. Concepts of multiple cropping, and inter-cropping and their importance. Modern concepts of organic farming, sustainable agriculture.
Soil-physical, chemical and biological properties. Processes and factors of soil formation. Mineral and organic constituents of soil and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and other beneficial elements in soils and plants Problem soils and their reclamation methods. Problems of soil erosion and degradation in Maharashtra. Soil conservation planning on watershed basis. Erosion and runoff management in hilly, foot hills and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them.
Present scenario, Methods and importance of water conservation. Water quality standards. Interlinking of rivers in India. Conventional and non-conventional methods of rainwater harvesting. Groundwater management- technical and social aspects, Methods of artificial groundwater recharge. Concept of watershed and watershed management. Dryland agriculture and its problems. Wateruse efficiency in relation to crop production, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water.
General Studies- II
Indian Constitution And Indian Politics (With Special Reference To Maharashtra ) And Law:
The Constitution of India:
Making of the Constitution, Salient Features of the Constitution. Philosophy of the Preamble – (Secular democratic and socialist), Fundamental Rights and Duties – Directive Principles of State Policy, Free and Compulsory primary education, Uniform Civil Code, and Fundamental Duties. Centre – State relations and Formation of New States. Independent Judiciary. Amendment Procedure and Major Amendments to the Constitution: Landmark Judgments used for interpreting the Constitution. Structure and Functions of major Commissions and Boards: Election Commission, Union and State Public Service Commissions, National Women’s Commission, Human Rights Commission, National Minorities S.C./S.T. Commission – River Water Dispute Settlements Board etc.
The Political System (Structure, Powers and Functions of Governments):
Nature of Indian Federation – Union & State- Legislatures, Executive & Judiciary. Union-State RelationshipAdministrative, Executiveand Financial Relationships. Distribution of Legislative powers, Subjects.
(1) The Central Government – The Union Executive: President- Vice-President – Prime Minister and Council of Ministers – Attorney General of India – Comptroller and Auditor General of India
(2) The Union Legislature – Parliament, Speaker and Dy. Speaker – Parliamentary Committees – Parliament’s Control over Executive.
(3) Judiciary: Organisation of Judiciary – Integrated Judiciary – Functions – Role and Power of the Supreme Court and High Court – Subordinate Courts – Lokpal, Lokayukt and Lok Nyayalaya – Judiciary as a watch-dog protecting the Constitutional Order- Judicial Activism, Public Interest Litigation.
State Government and Administration (With Special Reference to Maharashtra) –
Formation and Reorganisation of Maharashtra State, Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Chief Secretary, State Secretariat, Directorates, Legislative Assembly, Legislative Council, – Powers, Functions and Role – Legislative Committees. Sherrif of Mumbai.
District Administration –
Evolution of District Administration, Changing role of the District Collector: Law and Order, Relationship with functional Departments. District Administration and the Panchayati Raj Institutions. Role and Functions of the Sub-Divisional Officer.
Rural and Urban Local Government:
Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendment to the Constitution. Empowerment of local government and their role in development.
(1) Rural Local Government, Composition, Powers and Functions of Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti and Gram Panchayat. Peculiarities of Panchayat Raj Institutions of Mahrashtra, Status Report of Panchayat Raj Institutions and its Performance Appraisal. Main features of 73rd Constitutional Amendments. Problems of implementation. Major rural development programmes and their management.
(2) Urban Local Government, Composition and Functions of Municipal Corporations, Municipal Councils and Cantonment Boards. Structure, Officials, Resources, Powers- Functions and Controls. Main features of 74th Constitutional Amendments: Problems of implementation. Major urban development programmes and their management
Educational System :
Directive Principles of State Policy and Education; Educational Problems of Disadvantaged Sections- Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Muslims and Women; Privatization of education – issues of access to education, merit, quality, and social justice; General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and emerging issues, Challenges in Higher Education today. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.
Parties and Pressure Groups:
Nature of Party system – Role of National Parties – Ideology, organisation and electoral performance – Political Parties and their Social Bases. Regionalism- Rise of Regional Parties; Ideology, Organisation and electoral performance – Major Pressure Groups and Interest Groups in Maharashtra – their Role and impact on Policy making. Programmes of Social Welfare in Maharashtra : Women and Children; Labour; and Youth. Non-Government Organizations and their Role in Social Welfare.
Print and Electronic Media – its impact on policy making, shaping of the public opinion and educating the people. Press Council of India. Code of conduct for Mass media in a secular democracy like India. The portrayal of women in the main stream mass media: Facts and Norms. Freedom of speech and expression, and limitation thereof.
The Electoral Process:
Main features of Electoral process – single member territorial Constituencies. Reserved constituencies for weaker sections – Adult Franchise – Role of Election Commission – General Elections – Major trends – Patterns of Voting behaviour – and Factors influencing the voting behaviour – Problems and difficulties in conducting Free and Fair Elections – Electoral Reforms. EVMs.
Rule of law. Administrative Discretion and its control and Judicial Review. Administrative Tribunals, their establishment and functioning. Principles of Natural Justice
Central and State Government Privileges:
Section 123 of the Indian Evidence Act, Official Secrets Act, RTI and its impact on Official Secrets Act.
Some Pertinent Laws:
(1) Environmental Protection Act, 1986: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(2) The Consumer Protection Act, 1986: Definitions – Consumer Disputes – Redressal Machinery.
(3) Right to Information Act, 2005: Rights of Applicants, duty of Public Authority, exceptions to the information.
(4) Information Technology Act – 2000 (Cyber Law): Definitions – Authorities – offences.
(5) The Prevention of Corruption Act: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(6) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(7) Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules 1995: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
(8) Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955: Object, Machinery and Measures provided therein.
Social Welfare and Social Legislation:
Social Legislation as an instrument of Social Change; Human Rights. Protection to Women under: The Constitution of India and Criminal Law (CrPC), Domestic Violance (Prevention) Act, The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955, The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 and The Right of Information Act, 2005.
Public Services :
All India Services, Constitutional position, role and functions. Central Services: nature and functions. Union Public Service Commission. State Services and the Maharashtra State Public Service Commission. Training in the changing context of governance- YASHDA, Lal Bahadur Shastri Academy of Administration, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy.
Control over Public Expenditure:
Parliamentary Control, Estimates Committee, Public Accounts Committee, Committee on Public Undertakings, Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India, Role of the Finance Ministry in monetary and Fiscal policy, Composition and function of Accountant General, Maharashra.
General Studies – III
Human Resource Development (HRD)
Human Resource Development in India –
Present status of population in India – quantitative aspect (size and growth – Sex, Age, Urban and Rural) and qualitative aspects (Education and Healthcare). Population policy and projection upto 2050. Importance and need of Human Resource planning in modern society. Components and factors involved in planning of Human Resources. Nature, types and problems of unemployment in India, Trends of Employment in India, Demand estimate of skilled manpower in different Sectors and Areas. Governmental and Voluntary Institution engaged in development of manpower e.g. NCERT, NIEPA, UGC, Open Universities, AICTE, NCTE, ITIs, NCVT, IMC, etc. Problems and issues related to HRD. Govt. employment policy, various schemes to reduce unemployment and underemployment.
Education as a tool of HR development and social change. Education (Pre-primary to Higher Education) system in India. Problems and issues (Universalisation of education, vocationalisation of education, Quality improvement, Dropout rate etc.) Education for Girls, Socially and Economically underprivileged classes, Handicapped, Minorities, Talent Search etc. Govt.policies, Schemes and programms for Education. Govt. and Voluntary Agencies involved in promoting, regulating and monitoring Formal, Non-formal and Adult education. e-Learning. Impact of globalisation and privatisation on Indian education. National Knowledge Commission, National Commission for Higher Education and Resaearch, IITs, IIMs, NITs.
As a tool of HR development. Vocational/Technical Education- Present status, systems and training in India particularly in Maharashtra. Govt. policies, schemes and programs – Problems, issues and efforts to overcome them. Institutes involved in promoting, regulating, accrediting vocational and Technical Education.
As an essential and major component of HRD, Vital Statistics, World Health Organisation (WHO) – objectives, structure, functions and its programmes. Govt. Health policies, schemes and programmes, Healthcare system in India. Problems and issues related to Healthcare and efforts to overcome them. Janani-Bal Suraksha Yojana. National Rural Health Mission.
Empowerment of panchayat Raj system. Village Panchayat and its role in Rural development, Land reforms and development, Role of cooperative institutes in Rural Development, Financial Institutes involved in Rural Development, Rural Employment Schemes, Rural Water Supply and Sanitation programs. Infrastructure development e.g. Energy, Transportation, Housing and communication in rural area. National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR 1948)-
International human rights standards, its reflections in Indian constitution, mechanism to enforce and protect Human Rights in India. Human Rights Movement in India. Problems related to human rights deprivations such as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, social-cultural-religious practices, violence, corruption, terrorism, exploitation of labour, custodial crimes etc. Need, for training in and practising of human rights and human dignity in a democratic set up. Globalisation and its impact on different sections of Indian Society. Human Development Index, Infant Mortality Ratio, Sex Ratio.
problems and issues (Infant mortality, Malnutrition, Child labour, Children education etc.) – Government Policies, welfare schemes and programs – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations Community resources. People participation in their Welfare.
Women Development –
problems and issues (Gender inequality, Violence against women, Girl child Infanticide/Foeticide, Empowerment of Women etc.)- Government Policy, schemes and programs for development / welfare and empowerment – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community resources. People’s participation in their development. AASHA.
problems and issues (Unemployment, unrest, drug addiction etc.) – Government Policy – development schemes and programs – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community resources. People’s participation in their development.
problems and issues (Malnutrition, isolation, integration and development etc.) – Tribal movement – Government Policy, welfare schemes and programs- Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community resources. People’s participation in their Welfare.
Development for Socially deprived classes (SC, ST, VJ/NT, OBC etc. ) –
problems and issues (inequality in opportunity etc.) – Government Policy, welfare schemes and development programs – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Resource mobilsation and Community participation.
Welfare for aged People-
problems and issues – Government Policy – welfare schemes and programs – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations and Community participation for their development. Utilisation of their services in developmental activities.
Labour Welfare –
problems and issues (working conditions, wages, health and problems related to organised and unorganised sectors) – Government Policy, welfare schemes and programs – Role of ternational agencies, community and Voluntary Organisations.
Welfare of disabled persons
– problems and issues (inequality in educational and employment opportunity etc.) – Government Policy, welfare schemes and programs – Role of international agencies, Voluntary Organisations in employment and rehabilitation.
People’s Rehabilitations –
(People affected by Development projects and Natural Calamities.) – Strategy and programs – Legal Provisions – Consideration of different aspects like economic,cultural, social, psychological etc.
International and Regional Organisations:
United Nations and its specialised agencies – UNCTAD, UNDP, ICJ, ILO, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNCHR, EU, APEC, ASEAN, OPEC, OAU, SAARC, NAM,Commonwealth of Nations and European Union.
Salient features of the existing act- Rights of consumers- Consumer disputes and redressal machinery, Different kinds of Forums- Objectives, Powers, functions, procedures, Consumer Welfare Fund.
Values and Ethics:
Fostering of social norms, values, ethics through formal and informal agencies such as family, religion, education, media etc.
General Studies IV
Economy And Planning
Indian Economy –
Challenges in Indian Economy – Poverty, Unemployment and Regional Imbalances. Planning: Process – Types – Review of India’s First to Tenth Five year Plans. Evaluation. Social and Economic Indicators of Development. State and Local Level Planning. Decentralisation -73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments.
Urban and Rural Infrastructure Development:
Need and Significance. Growth and Development of Social and economic infrastructure such as Energy, Water supply and sanitation, Housing, Transport (Road, Ports etc.), Communications (Post and Telegraphs, Telecommunication), Network of Radio, TV, Internet. Crises, problems related to Infrastructure in India. Policy alternatives- Public-Private Sector Partnership (PPP). FDI and Infrastructure Development- Privatisation of infrastructure development. Centre and State Government Policies for Infrastructure Development. Transport and Housing (Urban and Rural). Problems – Centre and State Government initiatives and programmes. BOLT and BOT
Need – importance and role of industries in economic and social development, Growth Pattern, Structure of Large-scale Industries in India with special reference to Maharashtra. Smallscale,Cottage and Village industries, their problems and prospects. Impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on SSIs. Maharashtra’s Policy, measures and programmes for development, promotion and monitoring of SSIs. Export Potential of Small scale and cottage industries. SEZs, SPVs.
Concept, Meaning, Objectives, Old and new principles of co-operation. Growth and diversification of co-operative movement in India. Co-operative institution in Maharashtra – types, role, importance and diversification. State policy and Co-operative sector – Legislation, Supervision, Audit and Aid. Problems of Co-operatives in Maharashtra. Prospects of Cooperatives in the era of global competition. Review, reforms and prospects of cooperative movement in Maharashtra – Alternative policy initiatives in agricultural marketing- Employment Guarantee Scheme.
Background, Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation – (concept, meaning, scope and limitations). Economic Reforms at Centre and State Level. WTO Regime – Provisions and its implications and impact on Indian Economy, issues and problems.
International Trade and International Capital Movements:
Emerging Trends in era of globalisation. Growth, Composition and Direction of India’s Foreign Trade. Foreign trade policy of India – Export Promotion. WTO and International Trade. Foreign Capital Inflows – Composition and Growth – FDI. eCommerce. Role of Multinationals – International Financing Agencies – (IMF, World Bank and IDA). International Credit Ratings.
Measurement and estimate of poverty – Poverty line:
concept and facts, BPL, poverty eradication measures – fertility, nuptiality, mortality and morbidity in India – gender empowerment policies.
Factors determining employment
– measures of unemployment – relation between income, poverty and employment – issues of distributional and social justice.
Economy of Maharashtra:
salient features of agriculture, industry and service sectors – drought management in Maharashtra – FDI in Maharashtra
Economics Of Development And Agriculture
Methods of national income accounting. Functions of money – base money -highpower money – quantity theory of money – money multiplier. Monetary and non-monetary theories of inflation – control of inflation: monetary, fiscal and direct measures.
Public Finance and Financial Institutions:
Role of public finance in market economy – Criteria for public investment. Merit goods and public goods- sources of revenue and expenditure (Centre and State) -forms of taxes and subsidies and their incidence and effects.- tax, non-tax and public debt of Centre and States in India. Public Expenditure (Centre and States) – Growth and causes. Public Expenditure Reform – Performance Based Budgeting and Zero Based Budgeting. Zero-base budgeting – types of budget deficits – internal and external borrowings. Review of Tax Reforms at national and State level. VAT. Public debt – Growth, Composition and Burden. Problem of States’ Indebtedness to Centre. Fiscal Deficits – Concepts, Control of Deficits – Centre, State and RBI Initiatives. Fiscal Reforms in India – Review at Centre and State Level. Financial sector reforms – new trends in banking – real and nominal interest rates – repo and reverse repo transactions.
Growth, Development and International Economics:
(1) Indicators of development- sustainable development- development and environment – Green GDP.
(2) Factors of economic development: natural resource, population, human capital, infrastructure – theory of demographic transition- Human development index – human poverty index – gender empowerment measure
(3) Role of foreign capital and technology in growth – multi-national corporations.
(4) International trade as an engine of growth – theories of international trade
(5) IMF-IBRD-WTO – Regional Trade Agreements – SAARC – ASEAN.
Indian Agriculture, Rural Development and Cooperation:
(1) Role of agriculture in economic development – interrelationship between agriculture, industry and services sectors – contract farming – precision farming – corporate farming – organic farming.
(2) Size of land holding and productivity – Green Revolution and technological change – agricultural prices and terms of trade – farm subsidies–Public Distribution System – food security.
(3) Regional disparities in agricultural growth in India–agri-business and global marketing – agricultural credit in India.
(4) Sources of irrigation and water management – live-stock resource and their productivity – White Revolution, fisheries, poultry, forestry, horticulture and floriculture development in India and Maharashtra.
(5) Strategies of rural development during the plan period-rural infrastructure (social and economic)
(6) W.T.O. and agriculture – Farmer’s and Breeder’s Rights – biodiversity – GM technology. Implications of GATT (WTO) agreement in agricultural marketing.
(7) Marketing and pricing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost, role of co-operatives in agricultural economy.
(1) Importance of Agriculture in National Economy – Causes of low productivity – Government policies, schemes and programmes for agriculture production and developments such as land reforms and land utilisation, soil and water conservation, rainfed farming, Irrigation and its methods, Mechanization of Agriculture. Role of ICAR, MCAER.
(2) Problem of rural indebtedness, Agriculture credit- need, importance and Financial Institutions involved therein. NABARD and Bhu-Vikas Bank. Agriculture pricing- components, factors affecting prices of various Agriculture produces – Govt. support prices of various agriculture produces, Subsidies. Agriculture Marketing – present status, Value added products. Role of Govt and its institutes in agriculture marketing. (APC, APMC, etc.)
Food and Nutrition:
Trends in Food production and consumption in India, First and ensuing second Green Revolutions, Self-sufficiency in food, Problem of food security, Problems and issues of storage, procurement, distribution, import and export of food. Calorific value of foods and its measurement, Energy and nutrient needs of human body for better health and balanced diet – common nutritional problems in India and its causes and effects, Govt. Policies, schemes, programs such as PDS, Food for work, Midday Meal Scheme and other nutritional programs. Proposed Food Security Act.
Indian Industry, Infrastructure and Services Sector:
(1) Trends, composition and growth of industries, infrastructure and services sector in India – role of public, private and cooperative sectors in India – small and cottage industries. BPO.
(2) Liberalisation and its effects on Indian industries – industrial sickness.
3. Science And Technology Developments
Conventional and non-conventional energy sources – Potential of Solar, Wind, Biogas, Biomass, Geothermal and other renewable energy sources. Introduction to solar gadgets viz solar cooker, water heater etc. Biogas- principle, and process. Problems of Energy Crises, Govt. Policies and programs for power generation. Nuclear Power Program, Thermal Power Program, Hydroelectric Power program, Power distribution and National Grid. Agencies and Institutions engaged in Energy security, Research and development.
Computer and Information Technology:
Role of computer in modern society, its applications in various spheres of life such as data communication, networking and web technologies, Cyber crime and its prevention. Use of I.T. in various services, Govt. programs such as Media Lab Asia, Vidya Vahini, Gyan Vahini, Community Information Centre etc. Major issues in IT industry – its prospects
Indian space programmes, Indian Artificial satellites for telecommunication, television, education, broadcasting, weather forecasting, GPS, disaster warning. Indian missile program etc., Remote sensing, GIS and its application in weather forecasting, Disaster warning, water, soil, mineral resources development, agriculture and fisheries development, urban planning, ecological studies, GS and GIS.
Its potential to improve human life and national economy through agricultural, industrial development and employment generation. Biotechnology as an essential and important tool of natural resource development. Areas of application – Agriculture, Animal breeding and Veterinary health-care, Pharmaceutics, Human healthcare, Food technology, energy generation, environment protection etc. Role and efforts of government in promoting, regulating and developing biotechnology in country. Ethical, Social, Legal issues related to biotechnological development, possible adverse effects of biotechnological development. Seed technology, its importance. Quality of seed. Different kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques. BT cotton, BT brinjal, etc.
Nuclear Policy of India:
Salient features. Nuclear Power as source of energy and its significance as clean energy. Problems of nuclear waste. Nuclear thermal power generation in India, its contribution to total power generation. Determinants of Nuclear Tests: Pokhran I (1974) and Pokhran II (1998). Recent Trends in Nuclear Policy such as NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) and CTBT (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty). INDO-US Nuclear Treaty of 2009
Disaster Management: Definition, nature, types and classification of disasters, Natural Hazards:
Causative factors and mitigation measures. Floods, earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, etc., Factors affecting mitigation measures- Case studies of major earthquakes and tsunamis such as Killari (1993), Bhuj (2001), Sikkim-Nepal (2011) earthquakes, Banda Ache (2004) (Sumatra), Fukushima (2011) (Japan) earthquakes and Tsunami. Maharashtra: Mumbai floods of 2005. December 1993, June 2006, November 2009, July 2011 bomb blasts and terrorist attacks, their impact.