(Part IV A, Article 51 A)
The fundamental duties were added on the recommendation of Swaran Singh Committee in the year 1976. This committee recommended for the inclusion of 8 fundamental duties, the amendment included 10 fundamental duties. The 10 Fundamental Duties were added to the Constitution in the year 1976 through 42nd amendment.
The Fundamental Duties are borrowed from erstwhile USSR (Russia). Now even Russia does not have them.
The 11th Fundamental Duty was added in the year 2002 through the 86th amendment of the Indian Constitution.
THE 11 FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES:
These duties are laid down in the Article 51A.
- To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem
- To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
- To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
- To defend the country and render national service when called upon so
- To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
- To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
- To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and and to have compassion for living creatures
- To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
- To safeguard public property and abjure violence.
- To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of and achievement.
- Every parent or guardian is to provide opportunities for education to his/her child or ward between the age of 6 and 14.