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Tribunals

The original Constitution did not contain provisions with respect to tribunals. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added a new Part XIV-A. This part is entitled as ‘Tribunals’ and consists of only two Articles Article 323A: dealing with administrative tribunals  Article 323B: dealing with tribunals for other matters. Administrative Tribunals Article 323A empowers the Parliament […]

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Presidents of India

Presidents of India List from 1950 to 2022 Article 52 of the Indian Constitution states that there shall a President of India. The president is the nominal head of the government, he acts on the advice of the Prime Minister (Council of Ministers).  The President is elected indirectly by an electoral college comprising both Houses of Parliament and the legislative assemblies […]

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Chola Dynasty (848-1279)

The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty in southern India. They are one of the longest-ruling dynasties in history. The earliest references to the Chola dynasty can be traced to Sangam Age. The Heartland of the Chola kingdom was the valley of the Kaveri River. More than 10,000 inscriptions engraved on copper and stone form the […]

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Taxila University

Taxila University is the oldest university and was probably the first organized educational centre in ancient India. According to the Indian epic Ramayana, by Bharata, the younger brother of Rama, an incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. TakshaShila is considered the ancient world’s first international university  The university was funded by almost all the great kings […]

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16 Mahajanapadas (with Capital)

The Mahajanapadas were a set of sixteen kingdoms that existed in ancient India. It all began when the tribes (Janas) of the late Vedic period decided to form their own territorial communities, which eventually gave rise to new and permanent areas of settlements called ‘states’ or ‘janapadas.’ The period of Mahajanpadas (600 BCE) is also known as […]

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Gurjara Pratihara Dynasty (725-1036)

The geographical name of Gujarat is supposed to be derived from Gurjara. The literary meaning of Pratihara is ‘door keeper.’ The Gurjara Pratihara dynasty kings were followers of Hinduism. It is believed that their ancestor Lakshmana served as a doorkeeper to his brother Rama.  They ruled between mid-8th and 11th century A.D. over northern and […]

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Rashtrakuta Dynasty (755–975 AD)

The main Chalukya dynasty survived until 753 when one of its feudatories seized power and installed a new dynasty on the throne. This was the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Rashtrakutas were more expansionist than the Chalukyas had been.  They became involved in the great power struggles in both northern, where they competed with the powerful Gurjara-Pratihara […]

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Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1672)

By the end of the Sultanate Period, Multan and Bengal were the first territories to break away from Delhi and declared independence. Many other territories in the Deccan region also rose to power. The ‘Vijayanagara’ or ‘City of Victory’ was the name of the city as well as an empire that was founded by two brothers, Harihara […]

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History of Medieval India

The time from the 8th to the 12th century is known as the Medieval Period. It is again divided into two periods- The early Medieval period and the later medieval period. Medieval India is the phase of the Indian subcontinent between the ancient period and the modern period. This phase can be related to the time period between […]