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ALFONSO DE ALBUQUERQUE

Albuquerque, who succeeded Almeida as the Portuguese governor in India, was the real founder of the Portuguese power in the East. His Policy was of dominating entire oriental commerce by setting up forts in strategic places in Asia and Africa supplemented by a strong navy. He secured for Portugal the strategic control of the Indian […]

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Francisco De Almeida

In 1505, the King of Portugal appointed a governor in India for a three-year term and equipped the incumbent with sufficient force to protect the Portuguese interests. Francisco De Almeida, the newly appointed governor, was asked to consolidate the position of the Portuguese in India. Almeida’s vision was to make the Portuguese the master of […]

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FIRST CARNATIC WAR (1746–48)

The First Carnatic War was an extension of the Anglo-French War in Europe which was caused by the Austrian War of Succession. The First Carnatic War ended in 1748 when the Treaty of Aix-La Chappelle was signed bringing the Austrian War of Succession to a conclusion. Under the terms of this treaty, Madras was handed […]

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SECOND CARNATIC WAR (1749-54)

The Second Carnatic War (1749-54) was a power struggle between various contenders to the positions of Nizam of Hyderabad and Nawab of the Carnatic, with each claimant backed by the British or the French. The background for the Second Carnatic War was provided by rivalry in India. The death of Nizam-ul-Mulk, the founder of the independent […]

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THIRD CARNATIC WAR (1758-63)

It was an echo of the Anglo-French struggle in Europe. In Europe, when Austria wanted to recover Silesia in 1756, the Seven Year’s War (1756-63) started. Britain and France were once again on opposite sides. It was a decisive war known for the Battle of Wandiwash which was won by the British in 1760. Although […]

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Treaty of Salbai (1782)

The Treaty of Salbai, which ended the First Anglo-Maratha War, was signed on 17 May 1782 between the British East India Company and the Marathas. Salbai is situated in Gwalior District, Madhya Pradesh. Maratha Ruler Mahadaji Sindhia made an agreement with the English in October 1781 by which he agreed to negotiate with the Poona […]

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1st Round Table Conference

The first Round Table Conference was held in London between November 1930 and January 1931 and was chaired by Ramsay MacDonald. This was the first conference arranged between the British and the Indians as equals. The Congress and some prominent business leaders refused to attend it. The Princely States, Muslim League, Justice Party, Hindu Mahasabha […]

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2nd Round Table Conference

The Second Round Table Conference was held in London from September 7, 1931, to December 1, 1931. By this time, Lord Irwin had been replaced by Lord Willingdon as viceroy in India. The Indian National Congress nominated Gandhi as its sole representative. There were a large number of Indian participants, besides the Congress. The Princely […]

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3rd Round Table Conference

The third Round Table Conference, held between November 17, 1932, and December 24, 1932, was not attended by the Indian National Congress and Gandhi. It was ignored by most other Indian leaders. Apart from princely states representatives like Aga Khan III, B.R. Ambedkar, Muhammad Iqbal, M.R. Jayakar, N.M. Joshi etc. was present. Again, like in […]